History of the Church Vol. 1 Chapter 11. [Aug. 1830 - Oct. 1830]

Further Light Respecting the Sacrament--The Prophet's Removal To Fayette.

[For an explanation of abbreviations used here see volume 1, chapter 1]
[Copyright © 1997 BOAP. All rights reserved.]


EARLY in the month of August Newel Knight and his wife paid us a visit at my place in Harmony, Pennsylvania; and as neither his wife nor mine had been as yet confirmed (0), it was proposed that we should confirm them, and partake together of the Sacrament, before he and his wife should leave us. In order to prepare for this I set out to procure some wine for the occasion, but had gone only a short distance when I was met by a heavenly messenger, and received the following revelation, the first four paragraphs of which were written at this time, and the remainder in the September following:

Revelation given at Harmony, Pennsylvania, August, 1830. [D&C 27](1) (2) [August 1830, Sept. 4, 1830]

1. Listen to the voice of Jesus Christ, your Lord, your God, and your Redeemer, whose word is quick and powerful.

2. For, behold, I say unto you, that it mattereth not what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink, when ye partake of the sacrament, if it so be that ye do it with an eye single to my glory--remembering unto the Father my body which was laid down for you, and my blood which was shed for the remission of your sins.

3. Wherefore, a commandment I give unto you, that you shall not purchase wine, neither strong drink of your enemies;

4. Wherefore, you shall partake of none except it is made new among you; yea, in this my Father's kingdom which shall be built up on the earth.

5. Behold, this is wisdom in me; wherefore, marvel not, for the hour cometh that I will drink of the fruit of the vine with you on the earth, and with Moroni, whom I have sent unto you to reveal the Book of Mormon, containing the fulness of my everlasting gospel, to whom I have committed the keys of the record of the stick of Ephraim;

6. And also with Elias, to whom I have committed the keys of bringing to pass the restoration of all things spoken by the mouth of all the holy prophets since the world began, concerning the last days;

7. And also John the son of Zacharias, which Zacharias he (Elias) visited and gave promise that he should have a son, and his name should be John, and he should be filled with the spirit of Elias;

8. Which John I have sent unto you, my servant, Joseph Smith, Jun., and Oliver Cowdery, to ordain you unto the first Priesthood which you have received, that you might be called and ordained even as Aaron;

9. And also Elijah, unto whom I have committed the keys of the power of turning the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the hearts of the children to the fathers, that the whole earth may not be smitten with a curse;

10. And also with Joseph and Jacob, and Isaac, and Abraham, your fathers, by whom the promises remain;

11. And also with Michael, or Adam, the father of all, the prince of all, the ancient of days;

12. And also with Peter, and James, and John, whom I have sent unto you, by whom I have ordained you and confirmed you to be apostles, and especial witnesses of my name, and bear the keys of your ministry and of the same things which I revealed unto them;

13. Unto whom I have committed the keys of my kingdom, and a dispensation of the gospel for the last times; and for the fulness of times, in the which I will gather together in one all things, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth;

14. And also with all those whom my Father hath given me out of the world.

15. Wherefore, lift up your heart and rejoice, and gird up your loins, and take upon you my whole armor, that ye may be able to withstand the evil day, having done all, that ye may be able to stand.

16. Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, having on the breastplate of righteousness, and your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace, which I have sent mine angels to commit unto you;

17. Taking the shield of faith wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked;

18. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of my Spirit, which I will pour out upon you, and my word which I reveal unto you, and be agreed as touching all things whatsoever ye ask of me, and be faithful until I come, and ye shall be caught up, that where I am ye shall be also. Amen.


In obedience to the above commandment, we prepared some wine of our own making, and held our meeting, consisting only of five, viz., Newel Knight and his wife, myself and my wife, and John Whitmer. We partook together of the Sacrament, after which we confirmed these two sisters into the Church, and spent the evening in a glorious manner. The Spirit of the Lord was poured out upon us, we praised the Lord God, and rejoiced exceedingly.

About this time a spirit of persecution began again to manifest itself against us in the neighborhood where I now resided, which was commenced by a man(3) of the Methodist persuasion, who professed to be a minister of God. This man had learned that my father-in-law and his family had promised us protection, and were friendly, and inquiring into the work; and knowing that if he could get him turned against me, my friends in that place would be but few, he visited my father-in-law, and told him falsehoods concerning me of the most shameful nature, which turned the old gentleman and his family so much against us, that they would no longer promise us protection nor believe our doctrines.(4)

Towards the latter end of August, in company with John and David Whitmer, and my brother Hyrum Smith, I visited the Church at Colesville, New York. Well knowing the determined hostility of our enemies in that quarter, and also knowing that it was our duty to visit the Church, we had called upon our Heavenly Father, in mighty prayer, that He would grant us an opportunity of meeting with them, that he would blind the eyes of our enemies, so that they would not know us, and that we might on this occasion return unmolested. Our prayers were not in vain, for when within a little distance of Mr. Knight's place, we encountered a large company at work upon the public road, amongst whom were several of our most bitter enemies. They looked earnest(5) at us, but not knowing us, we passed on without interruption. That evening we assembled the Church, and confirmed them, partook of the Sacrament, and held a happy meeting, having much reason to rejoice in the God of our salvation, and sing hosannas to His holy name. Next morning we set out on our return home, and although our enemies had offered a reward of five dollars to any one who would give them information of our arrival, yet did we get out of the neighborhood, without the least annoyance, and arrived home in safety, Some few days afterwards, however, Newel Knight came to my place, and from him we learned that, very shortly after our departure, the mob came to know of our having been there, when they immediately collected together, and threatened the brethren, and very much annoyed them during all that day.


Meantime, Brother Knight had come with his wagon, prepared to move my family to Fayette, New York. Mr. Whitmer, having heard of the persecutions against us at Harmony, Pennsylvania, had invited us to go and live with him; and during the last week in August we arrived at Fayette, amidst the congratulations of our brethren and friends.

To our great grief, however, we soon found that Satan had been lying in wait to deceive, and seeking whom he might devour. Brother Hiram Page had in his possession a certain stone(6), by which he had obtained certain "revelations" concerning the upbuilding of Zion, the order of the


Church, etc., all of which were entirely at variance with the order of God's house, as laid down in the New Testament, as well as in our late revelations.(7) As a conference meeting had been appointed for the 26th(8) day of September, I thought it wisdom not to do much more than to converse with the brethren on the subject, until the conference should meet. Finding, however, that many, especially the Whitmer family and Oliver Cowdery, were believing much in the things set forth by this stone(9), we thought best to inquire of the Lord concerning so important a matter; and before conference convened, we received the following:

Revelation to Oliver Cowdery, given at Fayette, New York, September, 1830. [D&C 28] (10)

1. Behold, I say unto thee, Oliver, that it shall be given unto thee, that thou shalt be heard by the church in all things whatsoever thou shalt teach them by the Comforter, concerning the revelations and commandments which I have given.

2. But, behold, verily, verily, I say unto thee, no one shall be appointed to receive commandments and revelations in this Church excepting my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., for he receiveth them even as Moses.

3. And thou shalt be obedient unto the things which I shall give unto him, even as Aaron, to declare faithfully the commandments and the revelations, with power and authority unto the Church.

4. And if thou art led at any time by the comforter to speak or teach or at all times by the way of commandment unto the Church, thou mayest do it.

5. But thou shalt not write by way of commandment(11), but by wisdom;

6. And thou shalt not command him who is at thy head, and at the head of the church;

7. For I have given him the keys of the mysteries, and the revelations which are sealed until I shall appoint unto them another in his stead.

8. And now, behold, I say unto you that you shall go unto the Lamanites and preach my gospel unto them; and inasmuch as they receive thy teachings, thou shalt cause my church to be established among them; and thou shalt have revelations, but write them not by way of commandment.

9. And now, behold, I say unto you that it is not revealed, and no man knoweth where the city of Zion shall be built, but it shall be given hereafter. Behold, I say unto you that it shall be on the borders by the Lamanites.

10. Thou shalt not leave this place until after the conference; and my servant Joseph shall be appointed to preside over the conference by the voice of it, and what he saith to thee thou shalt tell.

11. And again, thou shalt take thy brother, Hiram Page, between him and thee alone, and tell him that those things which he hath written from that stone are not of me, and that Satan deceiveth him.

12. For, behold, these things have not been appointed unto him, neither shall anything be appointed unto any of this church contrary to the church covenants.

13. For all things must be done in order, and by common consent in the church, by the prayer of faith.

14. And thou shalt assist to settle all these things, according to the covenants of the church before thou shalt take thy journey among the Lamanites.

15. And it shall be given thee from the time thou shalt go, until the time thou shalt return, what thou shalt do.

16. And thou must open thy mouth at all times, declaring my gospel with the sound of rejoicing. Amen.


Revelation, given in the presence of Six Elders, in Fayette, New York, September, 1830. [D&C 29](12) (13)

1. Listen to the voice of Jesus Christ, your Redeemer, the Great I AM(14) whose arm of mercy hath atoned for your sins;

2. Who will gather his people even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, even as many as will hearken to my voice and humble themselves before me, and call upon me in mighty prayer.

3. Behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, that at this time your sins are forgiven you, therefore ye receive these things; but remember to sin no more, lest perils shall come upon you.

4. Verily, I say unto you that ye are chosen out of the world to declare my gospel with the sound of rejoicing, as with the voice of a trump.

5. Lift up your hearts and be glad, for I am in your midst, and am your advocate with the Father; and it is his good will to give you the kingdom.

6. And, as it is written--Whatsoever ye shall ask in faith, being united in prayer according to my command, ye shall receive.

7. And ye are called to bring to pass the gathering of mine elect; for mine elect hear my voice and harden not their hearts;

8. Wherefore the decree hath gone forth from the Father that they shall be gathered in unto one place upon the face of this land, to prepare their hearts and be prepared in all things against the day when tribulation and desolation are sent forth upon the wicked.

9. For the hour is nigh and the day soon at hand when the earth is ripe and all the proud and they that do wickedly shall be as stubble and I will burn them up, saith the Lord of Hosts, that wickedness shall not be upon the earth;

10. For the hour is nigh, and that which was spoken by mine apostles must be fulfilled; for as they spoke, so shall it come to pass;

11. For I will reveal myself from heaven with power and great glory, with all the hosts thereof, and dwell in righteousness with men on earth a thousand years, and the wicked shall not stand.

12. And again, verily, verily, I say unto you, and it hath gone forth in a firm decree, by the will of the Father, that mine apostles, the Twelve which were with me in my ministry at Jerusalem, shall stand at my right hand at the day of my coming in a pillar of fire, being clothed with robes of righteousness, with crowns upon their heads, in glory even as I am, to judge the whole house of Israel, even as many as have loved me and kept my commandments and none else.

13. For a trump shall sound both long and loud, even as upon Mount Sinai, and all the earth shall quake, and they shall come forth--yea, even the dead which died in me, to receive a crown of righteousness, and to be clothed upon, even as I am, to be with me, that we may be one.

14. But, behold, I say unto you "that before this great day shall come the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall be turned into blood, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and there shall be greater signs in heaven above, and in the earth beneath;

15. And there shall be weeping and wailing among the hosts of men;

16. And there shall be a great hailstorm sent forth to destroy the crops of the earth.

17. And it shall come to pass because of the wickedness of the world, that I will take vengeance upon the wicked, for they will not repent; for the cup of mine indignation is full; for behold, my blood shall not clean them if they hear me not.

18. Wherefore, I the Lord God will send forth flies upon the face of the earth, which shall take hold of the inhabitants thereof, and shall eat their flesh, and shall cause maggots to come in upon them;

19. And their tongues shall be staid that they shall not utter against me; and their flesh shall fall from off their bones, and their eyes from their sockets;

20. And it shall come to pass that the beasts of the forest and the fowls of the air shall devour them up.

21. And the great and abominable church, which is the whore of all the earth, shall be cast down by devouring fire, according as it is spoken by the mouth of Ezekiel the prophet, who spoke of these things, which have not come to pass but surely must, as I live, for abominations shall not reign.

22. And again, verily, verily, I say unto you that when the thousand years are ended, and men again begin to deny their God, then will I spare the earth but for a little season;

23. And the end shall come, and the heaven and the earth shall be consumed and pass away, and there shall be a new heaven and a new earth,

24. For all old things shall pass away, and all things shall become new, even the heaven and the earth, and all the fulness thereof, both men and beasts, the fowls of the air, and the fishes of the sea;

25. And not one hair, neither mote, shall be lost, for it is the workmanship of mine hand.

26. But, behold, verily I say unto you, before the earth shall pass away, Michael, mine archangel, shall sound his trump, and then shall all the dead awake, for their graves shall be opened, and they shall come forth--yea, even all.

27. And the righteous shall be gathered on my right hand unto eternal life; and the wicked on my left hand will I be ashamed to own before the Father;

28. Wherefore I will say unto them--Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels.

29. And now, behold, I say unto you, never at any time have I declared from mine own mouth that they should return, for where I am they cannot come, for they have no power.

30. But remember that all my judgments are not given unto men and as the words have gone forth out of my mouth, even so shall they be fulfilled, that the first shall be last, and that the last shall be first in all things whatsoever I have created by the word of my power, which is the power of my spirit.

31. For by the power of my spirit created I them; yea, all things both spiritual and temporal--

32. Firstly spiritual, secondly temporal, which is the beginning of my work; and again, first temporal, and secondly spiritual, which is the last of my work--

33. Speaking unto you that you may naturally understand; but unto myself my works have no end, neither beginning; but it is given unto you that ye may understand, because ye have asked it of me and are agreed.

34. Wherefore, verily I say unto you that all things unto me are spiritual, and not at any time have I given unto you a law which was temporal; neither any man, nor the children of men; neither Adam, your father, whom I created.

35. Behold, I gave unto him that he should be an agent unto himself; and I gave unto him commandment, but no temporal commandment gave I unto him, for my commandments are spiritual; they are not natural nor temporal, neither carnal nor sensual.

36. And it came to pass that Adam, being tempted of the devil--for, behold, the devil was before Adam, for he rebelled against me, saying, Give me thine honor, which is my power; and also a third part of the hosts of heaven turned he away from me because of their agency;

37. And they were thrust down, and then came the devil and his angels;

38. And, behold, there is a place prepared for them from the beginning, which place is hell.

39. And it must needs be that the devil should tempt the children of men, or they could not be agents unto themselves; for if they never should have bitter they could not know the sweet--

40. Wherefore, it came to pass that the devil tempted Adam, and he partook of the forbidden fruit and transgressed the commandment, wherein he became subject to the will of the devil, because he yielded unto temptation.

41. Wherefore, I, the Lord God, caused that he should be cast out from the Garden of Eden, from my presence, because of his transgression, wherein he became spiritually dead, which is the first death, even that same death which is the last death, which is spiritual, which shall be pronounced upon the wicked when I shall say: Depart, ye cursed.

42. But, behold, I say unto you that I, the Lord God gave unto Adam and unto his seed that they should not die as to the temporal death, until I, the Lord God, should send forth angels to declare unto them repentance and redemption, through faith on the name of mine Only Begotten Son.

43. And thus did I, the Lord God, appoint unto man the days of his probation--that by his natural death he might be raised in immortality unto eternal life, even as many as would believe;

44. And they that believe not unto eternal damnation, for they cannot be redeemed from their spiritual fall, because they repent not;

45. For they love darkness rather than light, and their deeds are evil, and they receive their wages of whom they list to obey.

46. But, behold, I say unto you, that little children are redeemed from the foundation of the world through mine Only Begotten;

47. Wherefore, they cannot sin, for power is not given unto Satan to tempt little children, until they begin to become accountable before me;

48. For it is given unto them even as I will, according to mine own pleasure, that great things may be required at the hand of their fathers.

49. And, again, I say unto you, that whoso having knowledge, have I not commanded to repent?

50. And he that hath no understanding, it remaineth in me to do according as it is written. And now I declare no more unto you at this time. Amen.


At length our conference assembled, The subject of the stone previously mentioned was discussed, and after considerable investigation, Brother Page, as well as the whole Church who were present, renounced the said stone, and all things connected therewith, much to our mutual satisfaction and happiness. We now partook of the Sacrament, confirmed and ordained many, and attended to a great variety of Church business on the first and the two following days of the conference, during which time we had much of the power of God manifested amongst us; the Holy Ghost came upon us, and filled us with joy unspeakable; and peace, and faith, and hope, and charity abounded in our midst.

Before we separated we received the following:


Revelation to David Whitmer, Peter Whitmer, Jun., and John Whitmer, given September, 1830. [D&C 30](15)

1. Behold, I say unto you, David, that you have feared man and have not relied on me for strength as you ought.

2. But your mind has been on the things of the earth more than on the things of me, your Maker, and the ministry whereunto you have been called; and you have not given heed unto my Spirit, and to those who were set over you, but have been persuaded by those whom I have not commanded.

3. Wherefore, you are left to inquire for yourself at my hand, and ponder upon the things which you have received.

4. And your home shall be at your father's house until I give unto you further commandments. And you shall attend to the ministry in the church, and before the world, and in the regions round about. Amen.

5. Behold, I say unto you, Peter, that you shall take your journey with your brother Oliver; for the time has come that it is expedient in me that you shall open your mouth to declare my gospel; therefore, fear not, but give heed unto the words and advice of your brother, which he shall give you.

6. And be you afflicted in all his afflictions, ever lifting up your heart unto me in prayer and faith, for his and your deliverance; for I have given unto him power to build up my church among the Lamanites;

7. And none have I appointed to be his counselor over him in the church concerning church matters, except it is his brother, Joseph Smith, Jun.

8. Wherefore, give heed unto these things and be diligent in keeping my commandments, and you shall be blessed unto eternal life. Amen.

9. Behold, I say unto you, my servant John, that thou shalt commence from this time forth to proclaim my gospel, as with the voice of a trump.

10. And your labor shall be at your brother Philip Burroughs'(16), and in that region round about, yea, wherever you can be heard, until I command you to go from hence.

11. And your whole labor shall be in Zion, with all your soul, from henceforth; yea, you shall ever open your mouth in my cause, not fearing what man can do, for I am with you. Amen.

Revelation to Thomas B. Marsh(17), Given September, 1830. [D&C 31](18)

1. Thomas, my son, blessed are you because of your faith in my work.

2. Behold, you have had many afflictions because of your family; nevertheless, I will bless you and your family, yea, your little ones; and the day cometh that they will believe and know the truth and be one with you in my church.

3. Lift up your heart and rejoice, for the hour of your mission is come, and your tongue shall be loosed, and you shall declare glad tidings of great joy unto this generation.

4. You shall declare the things which have been revealed to my servant Joseph Smith, Jun. You shall begin to preach from this time forth, yea, to reap in the field which is white already to be burned.

5. Therefore, thrust in your sickle with all your soul, and your sins are forgiven you, and you shall be laden with sheaves upon your back for the laborer is worthy of his hire. Wherefore, your family shall live.

6. Behold, verily I say unto you, go from them only for a little time, and declare my word and I will prepare a place for them.

7. Yea, I will open the hearts of the people, and they will receive you. And I will establish a church by your hand;

8. And you shall strengthen them and prepare them against the time when they shall be gathered.

9. Be patient in afflictions, revile not against those that revile. Govern your house in meekness, and be steadfast.

10. Behold, I say unto you that you shall be a physician unto the church, but not unto the world, for they will not receive you.

11. Go your way withersoever I will, and it shall be given you by the Comforter what you shall do and whither you shall go.

12. Pray always, lest you enter into temptation and lose your reward.

13. Be faithful unto the end, and lo, I am with you. These words are not of man nor of men, but of me, even Jesus Christ, your Redeemer, by the will of the Father. Amen. (19)(20)

During this conference, which continued three days, the utmost harmony prevailed, and all things were settled satisfactorily to all present, and a desire was manifested by all the Saints to go forward and labor with all their powers to spread the great and glorious principles of truth, which had been revealed by our Heavenly Father. A number were baptized during the conference, and the word of the Lord spread and prevailed.


At this time a great desire was manifested by several of the Elders respecting the remnants of the house of Joseph, the Lamanites, residing in the west--knowing(21) that the purposes of God were great respecting that people, and hoping that the time had come when the promises of the Almighty in regard to them were about to be accomplished, and that they would receive the Gospel, and enjoy its blessings. The desire being so great, it was agreed that we should inquire of the Lord respecting the propriety of sending some of the Elders(22) (23)among them, which we accordingly did, and received the following:

Revelation to Parley P. Pratt(24) and Ziba Peterson, given October, 1830. [D&C 32](25)

1. And now concerning my servant Parley P. Pratt(26) I behold, I say unto him that as I live I will that he shall declare my gospel and learn of me, and be meek and lowly of heart.

2. And that which I have appointed unto him is that he shall go with my servants Older Cowdery and Peter Whitmer, Jun., into the wilderness among the Lamanites.

3. And Ziba Peterson also shall go with them; and I myself will go with them and be in their midst; and I am their advocate with the Father and nothing shall prevail against them.

4. And they shall give heed to that which is written, and pretend to no other revelation, and they shall pray always that I may unfold the same to their understanding.

5. And they shall give heed unto these words and trifle not, and I will bless them. Amen.

Immediately on receiving this revelation, preparations were made for the journey of the brethren therein designated, to the borders of the Lamanites and a copy of the revelation was given them. They bade adieu to their brethren and friends, and commenced their journey, preaching by the way, and leaving a sealing testimony behind them, lifting up their voice like a trump in the different villages through which they passed.(27) They continued their journey until they came to Kirtland, Ohio.(28) where they tarried some time, there being quite a number in that place and vicinity who believed their testimony, and came forward and obeyed the Gospel. Among the number was Mr. Sidney Rigdon(29), and a large portion of the church over which he presided.(30)


Previous to this, Elder Parley P. Pratt had been a preacher in the same church with Mr. Rigdon, and resided in the town of Amherst, Loraine county, in Ohio, and had been sent into the state of New York on a mission, where he became acquainted with the circumstances of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, and was introduced to Joseph Smith, Jun., and other members of the Church. The belief that there were many in the church with which he had formerly been united, who were honest seekers after truth, induced Elder Pratt, while on his journey to the west, to call upon his friends, and make known the great things which the Lord had brought to pass.


The first house at which they called in the vicinity of Kirtland, was Mr. Rigdon's, and after the usual salutations, they presented him with the Book of Mormon, stating that it was a revelation from God. This being the first time he had ever heard of, or seen, the Book of Mormon(31), he felt very much surprised at the assertion, and replied that he had the Bible which he believed was a revelation from God, and with which he pretended to have some acquaintance; but with respect of the book they had presented him, he must say that he had considerable doubt. Upon this, they expressed a desire to investigate the subject, and argue the matter. But he replied, "No, young gentleman, you must not argue with me on the subject; but I will read your book, and see what claims it has upon my faith, and will endeavor to ascertain whether it be a revelation from God or not."


After some further conversation they expressed a desire to lay the subject before the people, and requested the privilege of preaching in Mr. Rigdon's chapel, to which he readily consented. The appointment was accordingly published, and a large and respectable congregation assembled. Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt severally addressed the meeting. At the conclusion, Mr. Rigdon arose, and stated to the congregation that the information they had that evening received was of an extraordinary character, and certainly demanded their most serious consideration; and as the Apostle advised his brethren to "prove all things, and hold fast that which is good," so he would exhort his brethren to do likewise, and give the matter a careful investigation, and not turn against it without being fully convinced of its being an imposition, lest they should, possibly, resist the truth.

A few miles from Mr. Rigdon's home in Mentor, at the town of Kirtland, lived a number of the members of his church. They lived together and had all things common--from which circumstance has risen the idea that this was the case with the Church of Jesus Christ.(32) To that place the Elders immediately repaired, and proclaimed the Gospel unto them, with considerable success; for their testimony was received by many of the people, and seventeen came forward in obedience to the Gospel.

While thus engaged, they visited Mr. Rigdon occasionally, and found him very earnestly reading the Book of Mormon,--praying to the Lord for direction, and meditating on the things he heard and read; and after a fortnight from the time the book was put into his hands, he was fully convinced of the truth of the work, by a revelation from Jesus Christ, which was made known to him in a remarkable manner, so that he could exclaim "Flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto me, but my father which is in heaven."(33) Accordingly he and his wife were both baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ; and, together with those who had been previously admitted to baptism, made a little branch of the Church, in this section of Ohio, of about twenty members.


This much accomplished, the brethren bound for the borders of the Lamanites, bade an affectionate farewell to the Saints in Kirtland and vicinity; and, after adding one of their new converts to their number--Dr. Frederick G. Williams(34) (35)--they went on their way rejoicing.

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Notes Chapter 11

0. See D&C 20:68. Eventually there were two regulations regarding confirmation, depending on whether an established branch of the Church existed where converts were baptized. D&C 52:10 would give direction that converts should be confirmed at "the water's edge" in areas where missionaries broke new ground.

1. Newell Knight recalls the circumstances of this revelation with these details:

In the beginning of August I, in company with my wife, went to make a visit to Brother Joseph Smith, Jun., who then resided at Harmony Penn. We found him and his wife well, and in good spirits. We had a happy meeting. It truly gave me joy to again behold his face. As neither Emma, the wife of Joseph Smith, nor my wife had been confirmed, we concluded to attend to that holy ordinance at this time, and also to partake of the sacrament, before we should leave for home. In order to prepare for this, Brother Joseph set out to procure some wine for the occasion, but he had gone only a short distance, when he was met by a heavenly messenger, and received the first four verses of the revelation given on page 138, of the Doctrine and Covenants (new Edition), the remainder being given in the September following at Fayette, New York. In obedience to this revelation we prepared some wine of our own make, and held our meeting, consisting of only five persons namely, Joseph Smith and wife, John Whitmer, and myself and wife. We partook of the sacrament, after which we confirmed the two sisters into the Church, and spent the evening in a glorious manner. The Spirit of the Lord was poured out upon us. We praised the God of Israel and rejoiced exceedingly.[Newell Knight journal]
While the revelation makes it clear that wine is not required, based on the NT and Book of Mormon, the brethren continued to employ wine in this ritual. It was still used among [Utah] Latter-day Saints on some occasions up to 1906 when water became the standard. [John Henry Smith journal July 1906]

2. Joseph's statement here implies that the revelation was received as a whole, the first part written at the time of the experience, the second later. Knight's statement suggests two revelations (essentially the same two parts) given at different times. The earliest ms may be that found in the hand of Edward Partridge (Dec. 1830?). This ms and versions published in the Book of Commandments and ES contain verses 1-5a, 14, and 15a. Verses 1-4 were published in the Painesville Telegraph, 19 April 1831 with D&C sections 20 and 22. The dating of this revelation varies considerably from July 1830 in MS (vol.4 no. 10, p. 151) to August 1830 in the 1981 edition of the D&C to September 1830 (Sept. 4 in BC) and in editions of the D&C from 1876 to 1920 dating was given as verses 1-4 August and verses 5-18, September 1830. The revelation was published in the PGP from 1851 to 1891 (verses 5-18 only.)

The ambiguity involved with the date is considered important because the revelation contains material on the visit of Peter, James and John to Joseph Smith. Verses 5-18 (except as noted above) are not found in any document published or written before 1835.

The revelation whatever its date, does give some important information regarding what exactly Peter, James and John did for Joseph and Oliver. (vs 12)

3. Nathaniel Lewis. Lewis was Isaac Hale's son-in-law (m. Sarah Hale) was ordained a deacon in the Methodist Church in July 1807. Lewis was described as shrewd, witty and deeply pious. We have already related Joseph's supposed encounter with Lewis [end of note 28 chapter 2.]

Isaac Hale, in his retirement years when Joseph came on the scene, felt ambivalent about Joseph Smith's stories and the work with the plates. During the summer of 1830 he flirted with belief, but finally, with support of Lewis and other family and community members turned against Smith. After Joseph and Emma left Harmony to escape increasing persecution, there is no evidence of further communication between the Smith's and Hale's, although Joseph apparently suspected disloyalty on Emma's part in favor of her family's opinions on a few occasions. Aside from Emma, one Isaac Hale grandson (Lorenzo Wasson) joined the Church. Among Emma's brothers, Reuben Hale gave some help to Joseph, but later said that Joseph's claims were bogus. David Hale claimed that Reuben helped Joseph fabricate characters supposedly from the plates (reference to the Anthon Transcript?) Alva Hale assisted Joseph and Emma to make the four-day 128 mile journey from Manchester to Harmony in 1827 and evidently was kindly disposed to the Smith's during their stay in Harmony. [Susan Easton Black, "Isaac Hale, antagonist of Joseph Smith," in Regional Studies in Church History - New York, (BYU Religious Studies, 1992), 93-108; Richard Lloyd Anderson, RBBM 3 (1991), 78; Larry C. Porter, "Reverend George Lane--Good 'Gifts,' Much 'Grace,' and Marked 'Usefulness'," BYUS 9 no. 3, 331-332.]

4. When Joseph and Emma moved to Harmony in December 1827, they lived with the Hales. Later they moved out of the house into to a nearby home belonging to another Hale son (Jesse, who had moved to Illinois) perhaps because Joseph refused Isaac's request to see the plates. Joseph finally obtained the deed to the property on August 25, 1830. The Smith's sold the land (they were then living in Ohio) on the 28th of June 1833 to Joseph McKune, Jr., for $300.[Larry C. Porter, "Ye shall go to the Ohio," Regional Studies -Ohio, p. 2]

B. H. Roberts adds this note :

Mr. Hale, the Prophet's father-in-law retained the bitterness then engendered in his mind; and some years later--namely, in 1831--made an affidavit concerning the character of Joseph the Prophet which has been very generally quoted in anti-"Mormon" works.(BHR)

5. Mss say "earnestly."

6. The stone was kept as a souvenir. It is currently in the RLDS archives. Cecil McGavin gives this description of the stone:

It is a flat stone about seven inches long, four wide, and one-quarter inch in thickness. It is dark gray in color with waves of brown and purple gracefully interwoven across the surface. A small hole has been drilled through one end of it as if a string had been threaded through it.[McGavin, The Historical Background of The Doctrine and Covenants, 1st ed., p. 93.]

7. President Joseph Fielding Smith remarked on Page and these revelations in this way:

Soon after his baptism he obtained a stone by means of which he received certain spurious revelations, at variance with the principles of the Gospel and the revelations received by Joseph Smith. Among other things he claimed to have received a revelation making known the place where the City of Zion would be built. In reading the Book of Mormon (Ether 13) it was discovered that Zion, or the New Jerusalem, was to be built upon this continent. This prediction caused some speculation at that early day and Hiram Page endeavored to settle the question by means of revelation received through his stone. As it was but a few months after the organization of the Church the members had not learned that there was but one appointed of the Lord to receive revelations for the Church, and several others thought that Hiram Page or Oliver Cowdery could receive revelation, just as well as Joseph Smith. Oliver Cowdery and the members of the Whitmer family were deceived by these false declarations of Hiram Page. This caused serious trouble and Oliver Cowdery took the Prophet to task for not accepting what Hiram Page had given. Finally the Prophet persuaded Oliver Cowdery that these things were wrong, and later the whole membership renounced the revelation given through this stone, but this did not come until the Lord had given to the Church the revelation known as section twenty-eight. [Joseph Fielding Smith, Church History and Modern Revelation, 1:125]

8. In the manuscript of the Prophet Joseph's History this conference is said to have been appointed for the "first day of September;"[both the draft and final ms say this PJS 1:263, 323] but in the Far West Record, a manuscript record kept by the clerks of the High Council in Missouri--and to which reference has before been made--are the minutes of the 9th of June conference (1830), which state that that conference adjourned to meet again on the 26th of September. The record also contains the minutes of the above conference bearing the date of september 26th. In addition to these reasons for changing the date in the text is the fact that immediately, or at least very soon after the close of the conference, a revelation was sought and obtained concerning the mission to the Lamanites, to which, even previous to the conference. Oliver Cowdery had been appointed (Doctrine and Covenants, xxviii: 8-10). The said revelation bears the date of "October 1830." (Doctrine and Covenants, sec. xxxii), which would scarcely be the case if the conference had been held on the first rather than near the close of September, as there is every reason to believe from the record that this revelation was received immediately after the conference closed. Moreover, the 26th of September, 1830, came on Sunday; whereas the first of September came on Wednesday, and as the conference lasted but three days, the brethren would scarcely arrange such a gathering without appointing it for such days as would include a Sunday.(BHR)

9. David Whitmer claimed that he and Cowdery did not accept these revelations from Page's stone as necessarily Divine. They were neutral. [Saints' Herald, Lamoni, Iowa, Feb. 5, 1887.] Newel Knight gives a somewhat different account of the situation:

After arranging my affairs at home, I again set out for Fayette, to attend our second conference, which had been appointed to be held at Father Whitmer's where Joseph then resided. On my arrival I found Brother Joseph in great distress of mind on account of Hyrum Page, who had managed to get up some dissention of feeling among the brethren by giving revelations concerning the government of the Church and other matters, which he claimed to have received through the medium of a stone he possessed. He had quite a roll of papers full of these revelations, and many in the Church were led astray by them. Even Oliver Cowdery and the Whitmer family had given heed to them, although they were in contradiction to the New Testament and the revelations of these last days. Here was chance for Satan to work among the little flock, and he sought by this means to accomplish what persecution failed to do. Joseph was perplexed and scarcely knew how to meet this new exigency. That night I occupied the same room that he did and the greater part of the night was spent in prayer and supplication. After much labor with these brethren they were convinced of their error, and confessed the same, renouncing the revelations as not being of God, but acknowledged that Satan had conspired to overthrow their belief in the true of salvation. In consequence of these things Joseph enquired of the Lord before conference commenced and received the revelation published on page 140 of the Doctrine and Covenants, wherein God explicitly states His mind and will concerning the receiving of revelations.

Conference having assembled, the first thing done was to consider the subject of the stone in connection with Hyrum Page, and after considerable investigation and discussion, Brother Page and all the members of the Church present renounced the stone, and the revelations connected with it, much to our joy and satisfaction.[Journal History, Sept. 26, 1830]

10. No significant changes apparent in available copies of this revelation. Earliest ms is that found in the ms history. Earliest publication is chapter 30 of the Book of Commandments. [Woodford]

11. Revoking whatever commission Cowdery may have had or thought he had to write revelations to the Church.

12. The headnote in the Book of Commandments states that section 29 is, "a Revelation to the church of Christ, given in the presence of six elders, in Fayette, New York 1830." The minutes of the second conference of the Church (26 September 1830), found in the "Far West Record," list six elders present in addition to Joseph Smith: Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, John Whitmer, Peter Whitmer, Samuel H. Smith, and Thomas B. Marsh. These six men are undoubtedly the same six referred to in the headnote. The second conference of the Church was held in the home of Peter Whitmer, Sr.[RJS, 41]

This revelation underwent a large number of printings and was evidently considered important by early Church leaders. The earliest ms (in hand of Orson Hyde and Samuel H. Smith) now known is found (date: Nov. 16, 1832) in the "Book of Commandments, Law, and Covenants, Book A." (BLC Bk. A) It contains the following statement not found in any other instance: "A commandment to the to the[sic] Church of Christ given to six Elders of the Church which are agreed in the presence of three of the members." The BLC text of verse 35 has the phrase "but no carnal commandment" instead the current "but no temporal commandment." Numerous insignificant variants exist among early copies. Aside from the BLC text differences noted, the only other substantive change is in an ES reprint (April 1835). There the words "hear me" at the end of verse 17 were changed to "repent."[Woodford]

13. This revelation introduces the doctrine of gathering, among other doctrinal themes, hinting that a place of gathering is to be designated. It is comparatively lengthy and treats a number of subjects including eschatological as well as protological giving a hint of the doctrine of preexistence (but see also D&C 27:11 where the preexistence of Adam might be inferred). In part it could be regarded as a response to Page's revelations and the scale is grand and impressive (the Church votes to disregard Page's revelations in the discussion which followed the reception of D&C 29). The subject matter of a portion of the revelation is clearly related to the Genesis narrative and may be related to the Bible translation effort now or soon to be underway.

14. One of many phrases in the revelations identifying Jesus Christ with the OT Jehovah.

15. D&C 30 is a compilation of three revelations to, respectively, David Whitmer, Peter Whitmer, Jr. and John Whitmer. The earliest ms is found in the ms history. Earliest copy known is in the Book of Commandments (1833). This contains the only significant variation. In verse 7 the BC reads "And none have I appointed to be over him in the church, except it is his brother Joseph."[Woodford]

16. Phillip Burroughs was the son of Jonathan Burroughs. B. abt. 1795 New Hampshire. Elected "overseer of the highways and fence viewer" for Junius, Seneca County, New York, April 1819. Residing in Seneca Falls, Seneca County, New York, 1830. Church meeting held in home September 1830. Apparently he and his wife were members of the Church. Some early members mention Burroughs: Samuel H. Smith reported that "he was glad to see us and Sister Burroughs was strong in the faith."[Samuel H. Smith journal 1831-32] Orson Hyde recorded, "Brother B. rather low but left him about persuaded to go to Zion."[Hyde journal, 1831-32][RJS, 42]

17. Thomas B. Marsh was the son of James Marsh and Molly Law. B. November 1, 1799 or 1800, in Acton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts. Married Elizabeth Godkin 1 November 1820. One known child: James G. Marsh. Baptized by David Whitmer 3 September 1830 in New York. Ordained elder September 1830. Revelation received for Marsh September 1830 names him "physician to the Church." Ordained high priest by Lyman Wight 6 June 1831. Appointed to travel to Missouri with Ezra Thayer. Thayer slow preparing to leave; Marsh left with Selah J. Griffin. Returned to Kirtland January 1832. Appointed to preach in East with Ezra Thayer 25 January 1832. Led small group of Saints to Jackson County, Missouri, in fall of 1832, arriving November 1832. Appointed inheritance of thirty acres on Big Blue River in Jackson County. [p.43] Taught school in Lafayette County, Missouri. Chosen to receive "endowment" in Kirtland 23 June 1834. Appointed member of Clay County, Missouri, high council 8 July 1834. Returned to Kirtland, Ohio, January 1835 in company with Edward Partridge. Ordained one of twelve apostles 26 April 1835. Participated in dedication of Kirtland Temple 1836. Appointed with Elisha Groves to collect money for poor Saints in Missouri 1836; successful in obtaining $1,450. Appointed, with David W. Patten, as president pro tem of Church in Missouri 5 February 1838. Owned 320 acres of land in Caldwell County, Misouri. Appointed sole proprietor of Church printing establishment in Far West, Missouri, 23 June 1838. Became disaffected in fall of 1838. Signed affidavit against Joseph Smith October 1838. Excommunicated for apostasy 17 March 1839. Remained in Missouri eighteen years; taught biblical geography. After death of wife, traveled to Florence, Nebraska, and sought out Church leaders. Rebaptized 16 July 1857 in Florence, Nebraska. Suffered a stroke which left one of his arms crippled [JD 5:116]. Arrived in Utah September 1857. Return to Church approved by Church leaders in Utah 6 September 1857. Married to Hannah Adams 4 October 1857. Settled in Spanish Fork, Utah, 1859; there listed as high priest. Taught school in Spanish Fork. Reordained elder 11 March 1859. Ordained high priest by November 1861. Received endowment and sealed to Hannah Adams in Endowment House 1 November 1862. Moved to Ogden, Utah. Died January 1866.[RJS, 42-43.]

18. This revelation appears in ms form in the hand of Edward Partridge, possibly written in December 1830. This ms contains the fragment vs 2-6a. Published 1833 in BC, chapter 34.

19. Thomas Baldwin Marsh, to whom the foregoing revelation was given through the Prophet Joseph, was born in Massachusetts, November 1, 1799, and after his marriage to Elizabeth Godkin in 1820, he went into the grocery business in New York afterwards engaging in a type foundry in Boston. Here he joined the Methodist church, but on comparing its principles with the scripture, and failing to make them correspond, he withdrew from all sects, but expected and indeed predicted the rise of a new church which should have the truth in its purity. He was moved by the spirit to make a journey west, during which he heard of the Book of Mormon. He met Martin Harris at the office where it was being printed, and secured proof sheets of the first sixteen pages. He later met Oliver Cowdery, and remained with him two days, receiving from him full information as to the coming forth of the Book of Mormon. Returning to his home near Boston, he kept up a correspondence with the Prophet and Oliver for about a year, and upon learning of the organization of the Church he moved to Palmyra in September, 1830, and was baptized by David Whitmer, and a few days later was ordained an Elder by Oliver Cowdery.(BHR) [See "History of Thomas B. Marsh written by Himself" (written November 1857), LDS Archives. Edited and published Deseret News March 24, 1858; Lyndon W. Cook," 'I Have Sinned Against Heaven, and Am Unworthy of Your Confidence, But I Cannot Live without a Reconciliation': Thomas B. Marsh Returns to the Church," BYUS 20 (Summer 1980):389-400]

20. This point in the ms history marks the end of James Mulholland's handwriting and the beginning of Robert B. Thompson's. Thompson's scribal work moves the history only one month, up to October 31, 1830 [Thompson wrote for Smith roughly from Nov. 1839 to Aug. 1841, but wrote only about 16 pages of the ms. See chapter 1 note 1 this volume.] Mulholland's segment is important because Joseph Smith was probably closely involved with its production. See note 1 of chapter 1 this volume.

21. Of course this knowledge arose from what the brethren had learned from the Book of Mormon of the promises of God to the Lamanites. (BHR)

22. The consideration of the "propriety" of sending Elders among the Lamanites here referred to was doubtless restricted to the propriety of increasing the number of Elders to go among them; for before the conference convened the propriety of sending Elders to the Lamanites had been settled by the word of the Lord. In a revelation receive before the conference of september 26th. Oliver Cowdery was appointed to go on a mission to the Lamanites, though instructed not to leave Fayette until after the conference. (See p. also Doctrine and Covenants xxviii; 8-10.) And before the conference adjourned another revelation was received in which Peter Whitmer, Jun., was appointed to accompany Oliver Cowdery on his mission. (See p. 116; and Doctrine and Covenants, sec xxx: 5-6. Hence these inquiries after the conference concerning the "propriety" of sending Elders among the Lamanites, I repeat, must have had reference merely to the propriety of increasing the number that should go. It will be observed also that the revelation which follows in the text merely appoints Parley P. Pratt and Ziba Peterson to accompany Elders Cowdery and Whitmer.(BHR)

23. Max H. Parkin, LDS historian and specialist on the Ohio and Missouri periods gives this summary of events regarding the so called "Lamanite Mission":

The mission to western Missouri in 1830-1831 was important for three reasons: it demonstrated the Church's commitment to preach to the descendants of the Lamanites of the Book of Mormon; it helped establish a stronghold for the Church in Kirtland, Ohio, where the missionaries found numerous unexpected converts; and it ultimately brought Joseph Smith to Jackson County, Missouri, to lay the foundation of Zion, or the New Jerusalem.

This mission, one of the Church's earliest missionary expeditions, commenced in October 1830 in New York State with the call of Oliver Cowdery, "second elder" in the Church; Peter Whitmer, Jr.; Parley P. Pratt; and Ziba Peterson (D&C 28:8; 32:1-3). It initiated the long continuing Church practice of taking the gospel to Native Americans. The Book of Mormon, in part a record of American Indian origins, prophesies that the Lamanites will assist in building the millennial New Jerusalem (3 Ne. 20-21), to be located in the Western Hemisphere (Ether 13:3-6; cf. D&C 28:9).

In the early 1800s the U.S. government began removing eastern Indians to the American frontier west of all existing states. In May 1830 the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Removal Law, further ensuring that the missionaries' ultimate destination was just west of Independence, Missouri, the last American outpost before "Indian country." To arrive there, the elders traveled on foot from New York, a distance of fifteen hundred miles, in midwinter.

These brethren soon found audiences of white settlers and some Indians. First, at nearby Buffalo, New York, they taught the Catteraugus Indians, who accepted two copies of the Book of Mormon. In northeastern Ohio they preached widely, and their message excited public curiosity. While visiting Mentor, Ohio, Cowdery and Pratt contacted Sidney Rigdon, a dynamic Reformed Baptist minister who was promoting New Testament restorationist beliefs in his congregation and was Pratt's friend and former pastor. They challenged Rigdon to read the Book of Mormon, which he promised to do. Rigdon also allowed the elders to speak in his Mentor church and to his congregation in Kirtland. Positive response to their message was almost immediate. Many members of the congregation, including Rigdon, were baptized. News of their success spread rapidly, sparking intense public feelings and leading to more conversions.

In four weeks in northeastern Ohio, the elders baptized approximately 130 converts, 50 of them from Kirtland. These new members made Kirtland their headquarters. Among the converts were men who would become leaders in the Church: Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. Williams, Lyman Wight, Newel K. Whitney, Levi Hancock, and John Murdock. Two other prominent men, Edward Partridge and Orson Hyde, joined the Church soon after the missionaries departed. By the end of 1830, membership in Ohio had reached 300, nearly triple the number of members in New York. In December, after learning of the great Ohio harvest, Joseph Smith received a revelation directing the New York Saints to gather to the Kirtland area (D&C 37:1, 3), which most did in 1831.

Joined by Frederick G. Williams, a Kirtland physician, the four missionaries continued west in late November 1830, preaching as they traveled. They visited the Wyandot Indians at Sandusky, Ohio, where their hearers rejoiced over their message. However, during several days at Cincinnati, they were unable to interest other audiences. In late December, the elders took passage down the Ohio River toward St. Louis until encountering ice near Cairo, Illinois, which forced them to walk overland. Thereafter, their journey became increasingly arduous. Because of storms of rare severity, the winter of 1830-1831 is referred to in midwestern annals as "the winter of the deep snow." Food was scarce, and the missionaries were forced to survive on meager rations of frozen bread and pork.

In late January 1831, still in the midst of intense cold, the missionaries arrived at Jackson County. Independence, the county seat, was a ragged and undisciplined frontier village twelve miles from the state's western border. Here the missionaries separated. Whitmer and Peterson set up a tailor shop to earn needed funds, while Cowdery, Pratt, and Williams crossed the state boundary, called by them "the border of the Lamanites," into Indian country. After first contacting the Shawnees, the elders crossed the frozen Kansas River and walked to the Delaware Indian village located about twelve miles west of the Missouri state line.

The Delaware Indians had arrived there only the previous November after a toilsome journey of their own. Because of their present poverty and mistreatment at the hands of whites, the aged Delaware chief, known to the white man as William Anderson Kithtilhund, viewed any Christian missionaries with suspicion. After his initial hesitation, however, Kithtilhund summoned his chiefs into council. For several days, through an interpreter, Cowdery shared with the receptive Delawares the Book of Mormon account of their ancestors.

Plans to establish a permanent school among the Delawares and to baptize converts were soon interrupted by an order to desist from the federal Indian agent, Richard W. Cummins. After issuing a second warning, he threatened to arrest the elders if they did not leave Indian lands. Pratt believed that the jealousy of the missionaries of other churches and Indian agents precipitated the order. In a letter to William Clark, superintendent of Indian affairs in St. Louis, Cummins indicated that the elders did not possess a certificate authorizing their presence on government Indian lands. Later in Independence, Cowdery wrote the superintendent requesting a license to return to Indian lands, but the request was never granted, and that effectively ended the Lamanite mission.

From Independence, Oliver Cowdery dispatched Parley P. Pratt to the East to report on the mission while the remaining four missionaries preached to white settlers in Jackson County. In the summer of 1831, Joseph Smith led a group from Kirtland to Jackson County to meet the missionaries. Through revelation the Prophet identified a site a half mile from Independence as the temple lot for the New Jerusalem (D&C 57:1-3) [EM, Vol.2, Lamanite Mission 1830-1831. For a more detailed view of the Lamanite Missionaries in Ohio and their effects, see Mark L. Staker, Hearken, O Ye People. (Draper, Utah: Kofford, 2010).]

The attempt to preach to the Indians, while short-lived nevertheless had the effect of turning many against the faith when the Indian troubles in Illinois began which led to the Black Hawk War. See the end of note 9 chapter 13 this volume for Oliver Cowdery's report.

24. Parley Parker Pratt was the son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. B. 12 April 1807 in Burlington, Otsego County, New York. Married Thankful Halsey 9 September 1827. One child: Parley Parker. Baptized and ordained elder September 1830. Called to travel with brother, Orson, to Missouri June 1831. Resided in Jackson County, Missouri, 1831-33. Presided over School of Elders in Jackson County, Missouri, 1833. Appointed President of Branch Number Eight in Jackson County 11 September 1833. Sent to Kirtland with Lyman Wight 1 January 1834 to counsel with Church leaders in Ohio concerning Saints' regaining Jackson County properties. Arrived in Kirtland before 24 February 1834. Traveled with Joseph Smith and others to New York state February-March 1834 to recruit for Zion's Camp. Member of Zion's Camp 1834. Appointed to receive endowment in Kirtland 23 June 1834. Appointed member of Clay County high council 8 July 1834. Ordained apostle 21 February 1835. Mission to Pennsylvania, New York, and New England 1835. Participated in dedication of Kirtland Temple 1836. Served mission to Toronto, Canada, 1836. Wife, Thankful, died 25 March 1837. Married Mary Ann Frost 9 May 1837. Four children: Nathan, Olivia, Susan, and Moroni. Mission to New York City 1837-38; there published Voice of Warning 1837. Moved to Far West, Missouri, arriving 7 May 1838. Arrested for murder and treason November 1838. Incarcerated in Richmond and Columbia, Missouri, November 1838-July 1839. No conviction. Published pamphlet on Missouri persecutions 1839. Left for mission to England with others of twelve apostles 29 August 1839. Arrived in England 6 April 1840. First editor of The Latter-day Saints' Millennial Star (Manchester, England). Returned to America for family July 1840. Arrived England 17 October 1840; resumed editorship of Millennial Star. Returned to Nauvoo from England 7 February 1843. Sealed to Elizabeth Brotherton 24 July 1843. No children. Mission to East in fall of 1843. Returned to Nauvoo by November 1843. Received endowment 2 December 1843. Member of Council of Fifty 11 March 1844. Campaigned for Joseph Smith's candidacy for president of United States in spring of 1844. Arrived in Nauvoo 10 July 1844, after Prophet's death. Sealed to Mary Wood 9 September 1844. Four children: Helaman, Cornelia, Mary, and Mathoni. Sealed to Hannahette Snively 2 November 1844. Three children: Alma, Lucy, and Henriette. Sealed to Belinda Marden 20 November 1844. Five children: Nephi, Belinda, Abinadi, Lehi, Isabella. On 1 December 1844 appointed to go to New York City, edit The Prophet, supervise immigration, and assume presidency of all eastern branches of church. Returned to Nauvoo 26 August 1845. Sealed to Sarah Huston 15 October 1845. Four children: Julia, Mormon, Teancum, and Sarah. Sealed to Phoebe Sopher 8 February 1846. Three children: Mosiah, Omner, and Phoebe. Moved from Nauvoo February 1846, and located family in Council Bluffs. Named Mount Pisgah, Iowa, 1846. Sealed to Martha Monks 28 April 1847. One child: Ether. Sealed to Ann Agatha Walker 28 April 1847. Five children: Agatha, Malona, Marion, Moroni, and Eveline. Called again to England 1847. Moved to Great Salt Lake Valley in fall of 1847. Remained in Utah until 1851. Assisted in forming Constitution of Provisional Government of Deseret 1849. Received commission from governor and legislative assembly to explore southern Utah 1850. Headed company of fifty men. Called to preside over Pacific [p.47] Islands and South America 1851. Left Salt Lake City 16 March 1851, arrived in San Francisco July 1851. Sailed for Valparaiso, Chile, 5 September 1851 to preach gospel. Arrived 8 November 1851. Returned to San Francisco 21 May 1852. Returned to Salt Lake City 18 October 1852. Sealed to Keziah Downes 27 December 1853. No children. Appointed to second mission to California 6 April 1854. Left Salt Lake City 5 May 1854. Arrived in San Francisco 2 July 1854. Returned to Salt Lake City 18 August 1855. Sealed to Eleanor J. Macomb 14 November 1855. No children. Visited eastern branches of Church December 1856-March 1857. Murdered 13 May 1857 in Van Buren, Crawford County, Arkansas.[RJS, 45.]

25. Not printed in BC, but appears in the KRB.

26. Parley Parker Pratt was born on the 12th day of April, 1807, in Burlington, Otsego county state of New York. He was the third son of Jared and Charity Pratt Jared was the son of Obediah and Jemima Pratt; Obediah was the son of Christopher and Sarah Pratt; Christopher was the son of William and Hannah Pratt; William was the son of Joseph Pratt, Joseph was the son of Lieutenant William and Elizabeth Pratt, who were found among the first settlers of Hartford, Connecticut, in the year 1639.

This William Pratt was a member of the legislature for some twenty-five or thirty sessions; and the general court gave him one hundred acres of land in Saybrook Connecticut, for services performed as lieutenant in the Pequot war: he was one of the judges of the first court in New London county. Parley P. Pratt is a lineal descendant of the seventh generation, from that distinguished pilgrim and humble pioneer to the new world.

Parley P. Pratt was reared to hard work on a farm and though his opportunities for acquiring an education were extremely limited he was brought up in the strictest school of morals. Even in early youth he gave evidence of a profoundly religious nature, and while yet in his teens became identified with the Baptist church. In 1826 he left New York state and settled some thirty miles west of the town of Cleveland, in the state of Ohio, and laid the foundation of a wilderness home. The next year, 1827, he returned to Canaan, Columbia county, New York,--the county where much of his boyhood was spent the home, too, of his parents--and there married Thankful Halsey, on the 9th of September, 1827. The same month the newly married couple returned to the wilderness home west of Cleveland. About eighteen months later Sidney Rigdon, who was connected with Alexander Campbell Walter Scott and others in that aggressive reform movement among the Christian sects which resulted in the founding of the sect of the "Disciples" or "Campbellites," came into Mr. Pratt's neighborhood preaching the doctrines of faith, repentance and baptism. As his doctrine more nearly conformed to the scriptures than any other Mr. Pratt had heard, he accepted Sydney Rigdon's teachings, joined the "Disciples," and became a minister in that church. He determined to take up the ministry as his life's labor, sold his possessions and started first of all to call upon his relatives in New York. En route, however, he was moved upon by the spirit to stop off at Newark, in New York, while his wife continued her journey to her father's home. At Newark, Mr. Pratt first heard of and saw the Book of Mormon, and, without delay, hastened to Palmyra to investigate the story of its coming forth. At the home of the Smiths, near Manchester, he met with Hyrum, brother of the Prophet, and from him learned the particulars of the work. In company with Hyrum Smith he went to Fayette, where he met with Oliver Cowdery; and about the first of September he was baptized by him in Seneca Lake, and straightway was ordained an Elder of the Church. After these events he continued his journey to the home of his kindred in Columbia county, New York, where he baptized his brother Orson, then a youth of nineteen years. He returned to Fayette in time to attend the conference, where he met the Prophet Joseph, and received the appointment to the Lamanite mission as related in the text.(BHR)

27. After traveling for some days the Lamanite mission called at some Indian encampments near the city of Buffalo, where they spent part of a day instructing them in the knowledge of their forefathers. These Indians were of the Cattaraugus tribe, and kindly received the brethren, who left with certain of their number who could read English, two copies of the Book of Mormon. And then continued their journey westward. (Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 49, 61.)(BHR)

28. In 1795 the State of Connecticut sold without survey what was guessed to be 3 million acres of land on the southern shore of Lake Erie to a group of investors for the sum of $1 million. Representing this group which operated under the name of the Connecticut Land Company, General Moses Cleaveland led a group of surveyors into the area in 1796 [Ohio became a state in 1803] and began a systematic survey of the purchase. The survey began from the Pennsylvania line to the Cuyahoga River.

In the initial survey the land was divided into strips of 5 miles across, those running north and south called ranges, those running east and west called townships. Within each 5-mile square or 160,000 acres, there were 42 lots of 380 acres. The lots were numbered from the southwest corner to the north and returning to the south so that lot #12 adjoined #1 and lot #42 was in the northeast corner.

Kirtland was named for Turband Kirtland one of the investors in region. Andrew Hall received in 1799 as a part of his share, Lot 17 of Tract 1 of the township named after Kirtland. Hall sold the land to a Mr. French for $300 in 1817 and French proceeded to establish a farm, a brick kiln, and a grist mill. In 1818 French sold some of his land to a William Card for $1,000, and other land in the area owned by Turband Kirtland was sold at that time for about $2 or $3 an acre, a large profit on land that a few years earlier had been purchased for about $.30 per acre.

The rectangular surveys and sale or distribution of land within these surveys over broad areas had an immediate impact on the pattern of settlement. Villages and towns became central places offering services to the surrounding agricultural population rather than residential sites for farmers who worked the fields surrounding the village.

In 1796 the minimum purchase of government lands was 640 acres at $2.00 per acre with half the purchase price deferrable for one year. In 1800 the minimum changed to 320 acres and the buyer was permitted to pay 1/2 on purchase, 1/4 two years later, and the final 1/4 four years later. In 1804 the minimum was lowered to 160 acres. In 1820 the minimum was made 80 acres and the price lowered to $1.25 per acre but no credit was allowed. In 1832 a farmer could purchase 40 acres and thus begin with an investment of only $50.00. During all of this period, the values and regulations on purchase of land from private land companies fluctuated also, and in some areas land was being given free to veterans of various wars as a compensation for services.

The allowable minimum, and credit provisions, had a great deal to do with how much land was sold. Few people on the frontier had cash on hand in any quantity. With a provision for deferring payment they could clear some of their land, burn the logs for potash, harvest some corn, hire out to an established neighbor perhaps for a few days, and meet their next payment.

If the price of land was seemingly not high, neither were the wages. Common labor in the early 1800s in the Ohio area paid about $.75 to $1.00 for a dawn until dark day. In 1828 a laborer on the canal at Dayton recalls being hired at $12.00 per month and having his pay cut to $9.00, at which point he quit the job. A bank cashier in Dayton in 1814 was paid $400.00 per annum. In the early 1800s a lucky farmer might pick up extra money from trapping. In 1832 bear skins traded at about $4.00, muskrat $.40, mink $.30, deer from $.75-$1.00, wolf $.25, but silver fox went as high as $75.00. Beaver were gone by 1837. Income from furs for purchase of land was minor after the 1830s in Ohio. Without credit it was difficult to obtain funds from any source to buy land outright.

Scarcity of cash money was also a major problem, and notes which were issued by all sorts of banks were hazardous. Notes existed from so many sources that banks and larger stores kept a catalog against which to check incoming paper notes for their current status. An interesting aspect here is that some notes which were known to be bogus circulated freely in a given area by local agreement because they were printed nicely and on high quality paper. Among legitimate bank notes, those coming up river from the Bank of New Orleans were highly regarded. Those notes, with Dix printed on the ten denomination were known as "Dixies" and it is thought by some that this is where the term generally applied to the South originated.

By 1835 trade over the Erie Canal was in full swing and the Ohio Canal connecting Cleveland with the Ohio River to the south was also functioning. The two canals were effectively connected by steamboats operating on Lake Erie. The impact of the canals was phenomenal. From July to December of 1827 when the Ohio Canal opened water travel from Cleveland to Akron, 6,059 barrels of flour, 619 barrels of whiskey, 102 tons of tobacco, 50 tons of butter, 28 tons of cheese, and 992 tons of other products moved north, while 3,536 tons of salt, 393 barrels of fish, and 233 tons of other goods moved south. In a two week period during the same year, over 600 settlers arrived in Cleveland to remain or to move to adjacent counties. Exports from Cleveland which totaled just over $50,000 in 1825 were near $5 million by 1833.

Highways were still crude or nonexistent in the Kirtland area in 1835. The first settlers came into the area via the lake, some traveling over the ice by sleigh from Buffalo during winter. Trails gradually developed along the township and range lines. Where the surveyors had blazed the trees, the people followed the blazes to prevent becoming lost in the heavy forest. These trails which followed the major survey divisions were modified somewhat to avoid steeper slopes as they were widened and used for wagons, but became essentially the skeleton of the transportation net by 1835.

It could be said that there is an important difference in stating that the Mormons were there, and stating that the Mormons were there also. In Kirtland they were there also. They came into an area already settled, already altered in physical character to some extent by clearing of forests, opening of roads, and opening of the canals which afforded an access to market for agricultural and manufactured products. It was a familiar environment to most of the saints arriving there, with no major differences in climate or land form such as they encountered to the west in Missouri and more so in the Great Basin. There was no experimentation with new crops or methods of agriculture as was needed later. But there was also no unoccupied land upon which to plat new cities, or which to farm. Land had to be purchased from others with payment for the cost of improvements and be subject to the vagaries of current speculation. The land was all owned. Even to pull off the road with the wagons and camp for the night as the saints left for Missouri required payment of a fee for occupying private land.[Robert L. Layton, BYUS, 11 (1971), no. 3, 423-438.]

29. Sidney Rigdon was born in Saint Clair township, Allegheny county, state of Pennsylvania, on the 19th of February, A. D. 1793, and was the youngest son of William and Nancy Rigdon William Rigdon, his father, a native of Hartford county, state of Maryland, was born A. D. 1743, and died May 26th, A. D. 1810. William Rigdon was the son of Thomas Baker and Ann Lucy Rigdon. Thomas Baker Rigdon was a native of the state of Maryland, and was the son of Thomas Baker Rigdon, who came from Great Britain. Ann Lucy Rigdon, grandmother of Sidney Rigdon, was a native of Ireland, and emigrated to the city of Boston, Massachusetts and was there married to Thomas Baker Rigdon, Nancy Rigdon's mother was a native of Freehold, Monmouth county, New Jersey; she was born March 16th, 1759 and died October 3rd, 1839, and was the eldest daughter of Byrant Gallaher, who was a native of Ireland. Elizabeth Gallaher, mother to the aforesaid Nancy Rigdon, was the second wife of the said Byrant Gallaher, and her maiden name was Reed. She was a native of Monmouth county, New Jersey. Her parents were natives of Scotland.

The early days of Sidney Rigdon's life were uneventful. His youth and the early years of his manhood were spent at his father's farm in St. Clair township, Allegheny county, Pennsylvania. When Sidney was seventeen years old his father died, but he continued on the same farm with his mother until he was twenty-six. In his twenty-fifth year he joined the "Regular Baptist" society or church. The pastor in charge was the Rev. David Phillips, a clergyman from Wales. In March, 1819, Mr. Rigdon left the farm and made his home with the Rev. Andrew Clark, of Pittsburg, also a Baptist minister. While residing with Mr. Clark he took out a license and began from that time his career as a minister. In May 1819, he removed from Pennsylvania to Trumbull county, Ohio. In July of the same year he made his home with Adamson Bentley, a minister of the same faith. While residing at Bentley's he met Phebe Brook, to whom he was married on the 12th day of June, 1820. She was a native of the state of New Jersey, Bridgetown, Cumberland county, but had previously removed to Trumbull county Ohio.

Sidney Rigdon continued to preach throughout Trumbull county until November, 1821. Passing through Pittsburgh about that time, for the purpose of visiting his relatives at the old homestead in St. Clair township, Allegheny county Pennsylvania. He was invited to preach to the Baptist society of Pittsburgh, which he did the following and several succeeding Sundays As the congregation had no regular pastor they invited him to take charge and become their regular minister: a call which he accepted and removed from Warren in Trumbull county, Ohio, to Pittsburgh in February, 1822. Meantime misgivings arose in his mind with reference to some of the doctrines of the church with which he was connected, especially with reference to the fate of unbaptized infants. Finally, after serving his congregation about two years and six months, he gave up his charge in August, 1824, and retired from the ministry. After taking this step he joined his wife's brother, Richard Brook, in the tanning business. Together they started a small tannery in which Mr. Rigdon worked as a journeyman for some two years. Meantime he had formed the acquaintance of Mr. Alexander Campbell, generally regarded as the founder of the sect of the "Disciples," or "Campbellites," and Mr. Walter Scott, a Scotchman by birth, but at this time a resident of Pittsburgh and a dissenter from a Scandinavian church with which he had formerly been associated. These three gentlemen often met and discussed the subject of religion, the necessity for a universal reformation among the churches, the abandonment of their creeds, etc. The consultations they held led ultimately to the establishment of the church or sect of the "Disciples."

Mr. Rigdon left Pittsburgh in 1826, and went to Bainbridge, Geauga county, Ohio, where the people urged him to speak to them. He did so, following in his teachings that line of doctrine which in his consultation with Messrs. Campbell and Scott they had considered were essential to Christian spiritual life, viz., faith in God, repentance of sins baptism by immersion in water for the remission of sins, and holiness of life--a godly walk and conversation. Mr Rigdon contained to labor in Bainbridge for about one year, when the people of Mentor, in the same county, but some thirty miles distant from Bainbridge, invited him to reside among them and preach This he consented to do, and notwithstanding he at first met with some opposition, he prevailed against it and extended his labors into surrounding townships and counties until he had in a number of places a large following. Such were his circumstances and such his labor when the message of "Mormonism" found him--when Parley P. Pratt presented him with the Book of Mormon and its attendant message.(BHR)

30. At this point in the ms history there is a long biographical essay on Sydney Rigdon. It was probably produced by Rigdon himself and indicates his involvment in this stage of the history. Roberts removed most of the text since a major purpose for its inclusion was to counteract the "Spaulding Theory" of the origin of the Book of Mormon. By the time Roberts was editing the ms for publication, this theory seemed less important. For the actual ms, see PJS 1:325-339.

31. The circumstance of Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. Pratt and their associates presenting Sidney Rigdon with the Book of Mormon is thus related in the Life of Sidney Rigdon, by his son, John W. Rigdon (Ms p. 18): "In the fall of 1830 Parley P. Pratt, Ziba Peterson, Oliver Cowdery, and Peter Whitmer called at the home of Sidney Rigdon in the town of Mentor, Ohio, and Parley P. Pratt presented to him a bound volume of the Book of Mormon in the presence of his wife and his oldest child, Athalia Rigdon, now Athalia Robinson, who was then a girl ten years old and now (1900) living in the town of Friendship Allegheny county state of New York; and who remembers the transaction as well as any incident of her life. Parley P. Pratt, at the time he handed the book to Sidney Rigdon, said it was a "Revelation from God."

Again referring to this circumstance near the close of the sketch of his father's life, John W. Rigdon relates how, in the fall of 1863, he visited the territory of Utah, where he spent the winter among the "Mormon" people. He was not favorably impressed with their religious life, and came to the conclusion that the Book of Mormon itself was a fraud. He determined in his own heart that if ever he returned home and found his father, Sidney Rigdon, alive, he would try and find out what he knew of the origin of the Book of Mormon. "Although," he adds, "he had never told but one story about it, and that was that Parley P. Pratt and Oliver Cowdery presented him with a bound volume of that book in the year 1830 while he (Sidney Rigdon) was preaching Campbellism at Mentor, Ohio." What John W. Rigdon claims to have seen in Utah, however, together with the fact that Sidney Rigdon had been charged with writing the Book of Mormon, made him suspicious: "and," he remarks, "I concluded I would make an investigation for my own satisfaction and find out if I could if he had all these years been deceiving his family and the world, by telling that which was not true, and I was in earnest. If Sidney Rigdon, my father, had thrown his life away by telling a falsehood and bringing sorrow and disgrace upon his family, I wanted to know it and was determined to find out the facts, no matter what the consequences might be. I reached home in the fall of 1865, found my father in good health and (he was very much pleased to see me. As he had not heard anything from me for some time, he was afraid that I had been killed by the Indians. Shortly after I had arrived home, I went to my father's room: he was there and alone, now was the time for me to commence my inquiries in regard to the origin of the Book of Mormon, and as to the truth of the "Mormon" religion. I told him what I had seen at Salt Lake City, and I said to him that what I had seen at Salt Lake had not impressed me very favorably toward the "Mormon Church, and as to the origin of the Book of Mormon I had some doubts. You have been charged with writing that book and giving it to Joseph Smith to introduce to the world. You have always told me one story that you never saw the book until it was presented to you by Parley P. Pratt and Oliver Cowdery, and all you ever knew of the origin of that book was what they told you and what Joseph Smith and the witnesses who claimed to have seen the plates had told you. Is this true? If so all right, if it is not you owe it to me and your family to tell it You are an old man and you will soon pass away and I wish to know if Joseph Smith, in your intimacy with him for fourteen years, has not said something to you that led you to believe he obtained that book in some other way than what he had told you. Give me all you know about it, that I may know the truth. My father, after I had finished saying what I have repeated above, looked at me a moment, raised his hand above his head and slowly said with tears glistening in his eyes: "My son, I can swear before high heaven that what I have told you about the origin of that book is true. Your mother and sister Mrs. Athalia Robinson, were present when that book was handed to me in Mentor Ohio, and all I ever knew about the origin of that book was what Parley P. Pratt, Oliver Cowdery, Joseph Smith and the witnesses who claimed they saw the plates have told me, and in all my intimacy with Joseph Smith he never told me but the one story, and that was that he found it engraved upon gold plates in a hill near Palmyra, New York, and that an angel had appeared to him and directed him where to find it: and I have never, to you or to anyone else, told but the one story, and that I now repeat to you." I believed him and now believe he told me the truth. He also said to me after that that "Mormonism was true; that Joseph Smith was a Prophet, and this world would find it out some day. After my father's death, my mother, who survived him several years, was in the enjoyment of good health up to the time of her last sickness, she being eighty-six years old. A short time before her death I had a conversation with her about the origin of the Book of Mormon, and wanted to know what she remembered about its being presented to my father. She said to me in that conversation that what my father had told me about the book being presented to him was true, for she was present at the time and knew that was the first time he ever saw it, and that the stories told about my father writing the Book of Mormon were not true. This she said to me in her old age and when the shadows of the grave were gathering around her and I believe her." (Life of Sidney Rigdon, by his son John W. Rigdon, Ms pp. 188-195)

Our author also mentions in his sketch of his father's life, an affidavit given to him by his sister, Athalia Robinson, to the same effect as the statement of Sidney Rigdon and his wife, relative to the coming of Pratt and Cowdery to their home in Mentor, and presenting to her father a bound copy of the Book of Mormon. Athalia was ten years old at the time, and distinctly remembered throughout her life the circumstance. (Ibid, Ms, pp. 195-6). (BHR)

32. Isaac Morley's farm was the site of this communitarian organization. George A. Smith said the group was named for Morley: "It has sometimes been denominated the Morley family, as there was a number of them located on a farm owned by Captain Issac Morley."[JD 11: 3-4.] The group had Rigdon's support.[Errett Gates and E. B. Hurlbert, "The Early Relation and Separation of Baptists and Disciples," p. 75.] Lyman Wight, later to become a Mormon Apostle wrote:

I now began to look at the doctrine of the Apostles pretty closely, especially that part contained in the second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, where they had all things common. In consideration of this doctrine I went to Kirtland, almost 20 miles, to see Br. Isaac Morley and Br. Billings [census records of 1830 list Titus Billings at Mentor, not Kirtland. Morley and Wight are listed at Kirtland]. After some conversation on the subject we entered into covenant to make our interests one as anciently. I in conformity to this covenant, moved the next February [1830] to Kirtland, into the house with Br. Morley. We commenced our labors together in great peace and union; we were soon joined by eight other families. Our labors were united both in farming and mechanism, all of which was prosecuted with great vigor. We truly began to feel as if the Millennium was close at hand; everything moved smoothly on till about the first of November [1830]. About this time five families concluded to join us in the town of Mayfield, about seven miles up the [Chagrin] river. They each owning a good farm and mills, it was concluded best to establish a branch there. Accordingly, I was appointed to go and take charge of this branch. . . . I shall therefore content myself by saying that they brought the Book of Mormon to bear upon us, and the whole of the common stock family was baptized.
Unfortunately, Cowdery evidently became involved in a transgression in Mayfield and while he later confessed and acknowledged the matter and sought forgiveness from injured parties, it caused some bad feelings and became one among a myriad of factors resulting in prejudice against the Mormons. [Sketch of Lyman Wight, by himself, written to Wilford Woodruff with a letter from Mountain Valley, Texas, dated August 24, 1857. LDS Archives; Hyrum L. Andrus, "The Second American Revolution: Era of Preparation," BYUS 1(1959) no. 2, 96; Ohio Star, II, no. 47 (Nov. 24, 1831); Kirtland Council Minutes, p. 33; Parkin, Conflict, chapter 5.] The Painesville Telegraph noted the preaching of the new elders and it gives us some idea of their approach to missionary work: (Nov. 16, 1830)
About two weeks since some persons came along here with the book [of Mormon], one of whom pretends to have seen angels and assisted in translating the plates. He proclaims destruction upon the world within a few years, holds forth that the ordinances of the gospel have not been regularly administered since the days of the apostles till the said Smith and himself commenced the work . . .

33. See F. Mark McKiernan, "The Conversion of Sidney Rigdon to Mormonism," Dialogue, 5(1970), 71ff. Richard L. Anderson gives a general account of the Lamanite mission in Kirtland in "The Impact of the First Preaching in Ohio," BYUS, 11 (summer 1971), no. 3, 474-496.

At this point in the ms there is more material about Rigdon omitted in the published history. The following sentence marks the end of Robert B. Thompson's work on the ms and the beginning of W. W. Phelps handwriting. [PJS 1:343]

34. Frederick Granger Williams was born in Suffield, Hartford county. Connecticut, October 28th, 1787. He was therefore a man of forty-three years of age when the Gospel was brought to him at Kirtland by Oliver Cowdery and associates. He was a man of considerable influence in the community where he resided. He owned a farm near Kirtland, but at the time the Gospel found him he was practicing medicine, and was widely known as Dr. Williams. He abandoned the practice of his profession, however, for the work of the ministry, and accompanied the Lamanite mission to Missouri.(BHR)

35. Frederick Granger Williams was the son of William Williams and Ruth Granger. Born 28 October 1787 at Suffield, Hartford County, Connecticut. Moved with family to Cleveland, Ohio, about 1799. Worked as pilot on Lake Erie, transporting goods and passengers between Buffalo and Detroit. Married Rebecca Swain late 1815. Four known children: Lovina Susan, Joseph Swain, Lucy Eliza, and Ezra Granger. Located in Warrensville, Ohio, by 1816; there engaged in farming. Studied medicine and moved to Kirtland to practice by 1830. Owned 144 acres of land in Kirtland 1830; subsequently gave land to Church. Baptized November 1830. Ordained elder November 1830. Accompanied Lamanite missionaries to Jackson County, Missouri, late 1830. First met Joseph Smith in Jackson County, Missouri, August 1831. Returned to Kirtland by September 1831. Ordained high priest 25 October 1831. Began serving as scribe for Joseph Smith 20 July 1832. Ordained member of presidency of High Priesthood 18 March 1833. Member of United and Literary firms. Member of Zion's Camp 1834. Attended School of Prophets and Hebrew School in Kirtland. Appointed to edit Northern Times (supportive of Democratic Party) May 1835. Worked on Kirtland Temple. Received blessing for working on Kirtland Temple March 1835. Participated in dedication of Kirtland Temple March 1836. Elected justice of peace in Kirtland June 1836. Owned stock in Kirtland Safety Society 1837. Charged with misconduct May 1837. No decision in case. Out of harmony with Prophet over Kirtland Bank 1837. Moved to Far West, Missouri, 1837. Dropped from First Presidency November 1837; subsequently excommunicated. Rebaptized about July 1838. Expelled from Missouri 1839. Excommunicated in absentia 17 March 1839. Located in Quincy, Illinois, 1839. Extended hand of fellowship 8 April 1840. Died in Quincy, Adams County, Illinois, 10 October 1842. Proxy sealing to Rebecca Swain 7 February 1846 in Nauvoo Temple.[RJS, 104; Frederick G. Williams, "Frederick Granger Williams of the First Presidency of the Church," BYUS 12 (1972) no. 3, 243-260.]