History of the Church, Vol.1 Chapter 24 [March 1833 - May 1833] 1

Kirtland to Be a Stake of Zion - Regulation of Church Affairs in Missouri.2

[For an explanation of abbreviations see vol. 1 Chapter 1.]

[Copyright 2007 BOAP]


March 18. - Great joy and satisfaction continually beamed in the countenances of the School of the Prophets, and the Saints, on account of the things revealed, and our progress in the knowledge of God. The High Priests assembled in the school room of the Prophets, 3 and were organized according to revelation; prayer by Sidney Rigdon.

"Doctor" Hurlburt4 was ordained an Elder; after which Elder Rigdon expressed a desire that himself and Brother Frederick G. Williams should be ordained to the offices to which they had been called, viz., those of Presidents of the High Priesthood, and to be equal in holding the keys of the kingdom with Brother Joseph Smith, Jun., according to the revelation given on the 8th of March, 1833.5 Accordingly I laid my hands on Brothers Sidney and Frederick, and ordained them to take part with me in holding the keys of this last kingdom, and to assist in the Presidency of the High Priesthood, as my Counselors; after which I exhorted the brethren to faithfulness and diligence in keeping the commandments of God, and gave much instruction for the benefit of the Saints, with a promise that the pure in heart should see a heavenly vision; and after remaining a short time in secret prayer, the promise was verified; for many present had the eyes of their understanding opened by the Spirit of God, so as to behold many things.6 I then blessed

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the bread and wine, and distributed a portion to each. Many of the brethren saw a heavenly vision of the Savior, and concourses of angels, and many other things, of which each one has a record of what he saw.

March 23. - A council was called for the purpose of appointing a committee to purchase land in Kirtland, upon which the Saints might build a Stake of Zion.7 Brother Joseph Coe and Moses Dailey8 were appointed to ascertain the terms of sale of certain farms; and Brother Ezra Thayre to ascertain the price of Peter French's farm. The brethren agreed to continue in prayer and fasting for the ultimate success of their mission. After an absence of about three hours Brothers Coe and Dailey returned and reported that Elijah Smith's9 farm could be obtained for four thousand dollars; and Mr. Morley's for twenty-one hundred; and Brother Thayre reported that Peter French10 would sell his farm for five thousand dollars. The council decided to purchase the farms, and appointed Ezra Thayre and Joseph Coe to superintend the purchase; and they were ordained under the hands of Sidney Rigdon, and set apart as general agents of the Church for that purpose.11

On the 26th of March a council of High Priests, twenty-one in number, convened for the general welfare of the Church, in what was then called Zion, in Jackson county, Missouri. On account of a revelation, 12 my letter, and an epistle from the Church in Kirtland, a solemn assembly had been called, and a sincere and humble repentance manifested, insomuch that on the 26th of February, one month previous, a general epistle had been written in conference, which was satisfactory to the Presidency and Church at Kirtland. At the sitting of the council of the 26th of March, according to the plan taught at the solemn assembly, which was, that the seven High Priests who were sent from Kirtland to build up Zion, viz.-Oliver Cowdery, W. W.

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Phelps, John Whitmer, Algeron Sidney Gilbert, Bishop Partridge and his two counselors-should stand at the head of affairs relating to the Church, in that section of the Lord's vineyard; and these seven men, with the common consent of the branches comprising the Church were to appoint presiding Elders, to take the watchcare of the several branches, as they were appointed: Now, therefore, as many of the High Priests and Elders - whose calling was to travel and preach to the world-went up to Zion, and commenced regulating and setting the branches in order, and claiming for themselves as much power by the authority of their Priesthood, and gift of the Holy Ghost, as those set apart and appointed to preside over the branches, it became necessary to call the council now spoken of, to set in order the Elders of Israel. After a long discussion, it was decided from the revelations, that the order taught in the solemn assembly was correct; and that the Elders, when they arrived at Zion, were bound by the authorities set in the Church, to be submissive to the powers that be; their labors and calling being more particularly to push the people together from the ends of the earth to the places the Lord had appointed. This decision in council gave general satisfaction, and the Elders soon saw the beauty of every man standing in his place.13

April 2.-F. G. Williams was appointed by a council of High Priests, an agent to superintend and employ men to labor in the brick-yard on the French farm, also to rent the farm. The French farm was purchased on account of the facilities found there for making brick, which was essential to the building up of the city. The council also instructed Brother Ezra Thayre to purchase the tannery of Arnold Mason, 14 in Kirtland.

On the 6th of April, in the land of Zion, about eighty officials, together with some unofficial members of the Church,15 met for instruction and the service of God, at the Ferry on Big Blue river

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near the western limits of Jackson county, which is the boundary line of the state of Missouri and also of the United States. It was an early spring, and the leaves and blossoms enlivened and gratified the soul of man like a glimpse of Paradise. The day was spent in a very agreeable manner, in giving and receiving knowledge which appertained to this last kingdom-it being just 1800 years since the Savior laid down His life that men might have everlasting life, and only three years since the Church had come out of the wilderness, preparatory for the last dispensation. The Saints had great reason to rejoice: they thought upon the time when this world came into existence, and the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy; they thought of the time when Israel ate the "Passover, " as wailing came up for the loss of the firstborn of Egypt; they felt like the shepherds who watched their flocks by night, when the angelic choir sweetly sang the electrifying strain, "Peace on earth, good will to man;" and the solemnities of eternity rested upon them. This was the first attempt made by the Church to celebrate the anniversary of her birthday, and those who professed not our faith talked about it as a strange thing.16

While the Church was thus rejoicing, the news from abroad was, that 30, 000 out of a population of 100, 000 had died of starvation, in consequence of the famine produced by three year's drouth, followed by a flood, in the Cape Verde Islands; that sixteen shocks of earthquake had been felt the previous February, at St. Kitts and Nevis, in the West Indian Islands; that the Polish Jews were about to visit Jerusalem; that war was raging between Turkey and Egypt; that a great fire had occurred in Liverpool; that volcanic eruptions, wars and rumors of wars, were prevailing in different sections of the earth, and fire-balls and fearful signs were seen in the heavens, with many other alarming appearances, which caused the hearts of

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the wicked to tremble, none of which was more awful than the continued spread of the Asiatic cholera in Europe, which had already swept from the earth, in the short space of fifteen years, about sixty millions of inhabitants. 17

Brother Jared Carter presented me a letter, which he had received from his brother,18 and requested me to answer it, which I did as follows:

Kirtland, April 13, 1833.

Dear Brother Carter:-Your letter to Brother Jared is just put into my hand, and I have carefully perused its contents, and embrace this opportunity to answer it. We proceed to answer your questions: first concerning your labor in the region where you live; we acquiesce in your feelings on this subject until the mouth of the Lord shall name. Respecting the vision you speak of we do not consider ourselves bound to receive any revelation from any one man or woman without his being legally constituted and ordained to that authority, and giving sufficient proof of it.

I will inform you that it is contrary to the economy of God for any member of the Church, or any one, to receive instructions for those in authority, higher than themselves; therefore you will see the impropriety of giving heed to them; but if any person have a vision or a visitation from a heavenly messenger, it must be for his own benefit and instruction; for the fundamental principles, government, and doctrine of the Church are vested in the keys of the kingdom. Respecting an apostate, or one who has been cut off from the Church, and who wishes to come in again, the law of our Church expressly says that such shall repent, and be baptized, and be admitted as at the first.

The duty of a High Priest is to administer in spiritual and holy things, and to hold communion with God; but not to exercise monarchial government, or to appoint meetings for the Elders without their consent. And again, it is the High Priests' duty to be better qualified to teach principles and doctrines, than the Elders; for the office of Elder is an appendage to the High Priesthood19, and it concentrates and centers in one. And again, the process of laboring with members: We are to deal with them precisely as the Scriptures direct. If thy brother trespass against thee, take him between him and thee alone; and, if he make thee satisfaction, thou hast saved thy brother; and if not, proceed to take another with thee, etc., and when there is no

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Bishop, they are to be tried by the voice of the Church; and if an Elder, or a High Priest be present, he is to take the lead in managing the business; but if not, such as have the highest authority should preside.

With respect to preparing to go to Zion:-First it would be pleasing to the Lord that the church or churches going to Zion should be organized, and a suitable person appointed who is well acquainted with the condition of the church, and he be sent to Kirtland to inform the Bishop, and procure a license from him agreeable to the revelation:20 by so doing you will prevent confusion and disorder, and escape many difficulties that attend an unorganized band in journeying in the last days.

And again, those in debt, should in all cases pay their debts; and the rich are in no wise to cast out the poor, or leave them behind, for it is said that the poor shall inherit the earth.

You quoted a passage in Jeremiah, with regard to journeying to Zion; the word of the Lord stands sure, so let it be done.

There are two paragraphs in your letter which I do not commend, a they were written blindly. Speaking of the Elders being sent like lightning from the bow of Judah; the second, no secrets in the councils of Zion. You mention these as if fear rested upon your mind, otherwise we cannot understand it. And again we never inquire at the hand of God for special revelation only in case of there being no previous revelation to suit the case; and that in a council of High Priests.21

For further information on the subject about which you have written, I will refer you to the Elders who have recently left here for the east, by commandment, some of whom you will probably see soon. You may depend on any information you may receive from them that are faithful. You may expect to see Brothers Orson Pratt and Lyman E. Johnson for whom we have great fellowship.

It is a great thing to inquire at the hands of God, or to come into His presence; and we feel fearful to approach Him on subjects that are of little or no consequence, to satisfy the queries of individuals, especially about things the knowledge of which men ought to obtain in all sincerity, before God, for themselves, in humility by the prayer of faith; and more especially a Teacher or a High Priest in the Church. I speak these things not by way of reproach, but by way of instruction; and I speak as if acquainted with you, whereas we are strangers to each other in the flesh.

I love your soul, and the souls of the children of men, and pray and do all I can for the salvation of all.

I now close by sending you a salutation of peace in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

The blessing of our Lord Jesus Christ be and abide with you all. Amen.

Joseph Smith, Jun.22

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P. S.-If it be convenient to send a delegate to Kirtland, to procure license for the brethren to go to Zion, it can be done by two or more Elders. We have received two letters from Brother Sherwood, stating the order and condition of the Church, and respecting the vision of his wife, but on account of a multitude of business they have not been answered by us; you will please read this letter to Brother Sherwood.23

J. S.

In April the School of the Prophets closed to commence again in the fall. 23a

A Letter to the Brethren in Zion.

Kirtland, April 21, 1833.

Dear Brethren in Zion, Agreeable to a notice we gave you, in Brother Whitney's last letter to you with respect to answering your letters, we now commence, after giving thanks to our Heavenly Father for every expression of His goodness in preserving our unprofitable lives to the present time, and for the health and other blessings which we now enjoy through His mercies.

With joy we received your general epistle, written the 26th of February, which contained the confession of our brethren concerned, all of which was to our entire satisfaction.

It was read by the brethren in Kirtland with feelings of the deepest interest, knowing as we did, that the anger of the Lord was kindled against you, and nothing but repentance, of the greatest humility, would turn it away; and I will assure you that expressions of joy beamed on every countenance when they saw that our epistle and the revelation had been received by our brethren in Zion, and had had the desired effect.

For your satisfaction, I here insert a revelation given to Shederlaomach24 (Frederick G. Williams), the 15th of March, 1833, constituting him a member of the United Firm.25

With respect to Brother Gilbert's letter of the 10th of December, I would say to him: firstly, he wrote it in all sincerity of heart, and we were pleased with the style, and composition; but upon mature reflection, and inquiry at the hands of the Lord, we find some things that are unreconcilable, especially to some; I mean with respect to hints given that are not clearly explained.

As every letter that comes from Zion must go the rounds of the

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brethren for inspection, it is necessary that there should be no disguise in them, but that every subject written upon by the brethren should be plain to the understanding of all, that no jealousy may be raised, and when we rebuke, do it in all meekness. The letter written the 24th of February was not written in that contrition of heart in which it should have been, for it appears to have been written in too much of a spirit of justification; but the letter to Brother Whitney of the 20th of March, was written to our entire satisfaction.

Now I would say to Brother Gilbert, that I do not write this by way of chastisement, but to show him the absolute necessity of having all his communications written in a manner to be clearly understood. We are well aware of the great care upon his mind, in consequence of much business, but he must put his trust in God, and he may rest assured that he has our prayers day and night, that he may have strength to overcome every difficulty. We have learned of the Lord that it is his duty to assist all the poor brethren that are pure in heart, and that he has done wrong in withholding credit from them, as they must have assistance; and the Lord established him in Zion for that express purpose.

It is not the will of the Lord to print any of the New Translation in the Star; but when it is published, it will all go to the world together, in a volume by itself; and the New Testament and the Book of Mormon will be printed together.26

With respect to Brother Oliver's private letter to me on the subject of giving deeds, and receiving contributions from brethren, I have nothing further to say on the subject than to recommend that you make yourselves acquainted with the commandments of the Lord, and the laws of the state, 27 and govern yourselves accordingly. Brother Elliot was here yesterday and showed me a letter from Brother Phelps, and we were well pleased with the spirit in which it was written. The probability is that he [Elliot] will not go to Zion at present, as he has bought [lands] in Chagrin.

We rejoice to hear that the Seminary lands28 are reduced in price, and are coming into market; and be assured that we shall use our influence to send brethren to Zion who are able to help you in the purchase of lands. We have just received a letter from Brother Sidney, he has built up a church of eight members, in Medina county, Ohio, and has prospects of more. With respect to the deaths in Zion, we feel to mourn with those that mourn, but remember that the God of all the earth will do right. And now, my beloved brethren, I commend you to God and His grace, praying Him to keep and preserve you blameless, of the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

Joseph Smith, Jun.

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P. S.-Say to Brother Corrill that his confession gave me great satisfaction, and all things are now settled on my part.29

J. S.

In the month of April, the first regular mob rushed together, in Independence, to consult upon a plan, for the removal, or immediate destruction, of the Church in Jackson county. The number of the mob was about three hundred. A few of the first Elders met in secret, and prayed to Him who said to the wind, "Be still, " to frustrate them in their wicked designs. The mob, therefore, after spending the day in a fruitless endeavor to unite upon a general scheme for "moving the Mormons out of their diggings" (as they asserted), became a little the worse for liquor and broke up in a regular Missouri "row, " showing a determined resolution that every man would "carry his own head."30

April 30.-A conference of High Priests assembled at the school room, in Kirtland, and appointed Brother Albert Brown31 a committee to circulate a subscription, to procure money to pay for the use of the house where meetings had been held the past season. John P. Greene was instructed to go and take charge of the branch of the Church in Parkham county, carrying with him an epistle to the brethren; and as soon as convenient he was to remove his family to that place. It was also decided that Sister Vienna Jaques32 should not proceed immediately on her journey to Zion, but wait until William Hobert was ready, and go in company with him.

May 4.-A conference of High Priests assembled in Kirtland, to take into consideration the necessity of building a school house, for the accommodation of the Elders, who should come together to receive instruction preparatory for their missions, and ministry, according to a revelation on that subject, given March 8, 1833,33 and by unanimous voice of the conference; Hyrum Smith, Jared

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Carter, and Reynolds Cahoon were appointed a committee to obtain subscriptions, for the purpose of erecting such a building.34

A council had previously been held in Norton Township, Medina county, Ohio, at which Sidney Rigdon presided. The council took into consideration the standing of Baldwin Welton 35, Aaron Smith, and--Hays,35a Elders; and James Braden, Priest; and decided that their ordinations were illegal, and that the churches should not receive them in their several offices. The doings of the council were reviewed, and sanctioned by the First Presidency, viz: Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. Williams, and entered on record in Kirtland.36

May 6.-I received the following:

Revelation.37 [D&C 93]38

1. Verily, thus saith the Lord: It shall come to pass that every soul who forsaketh his sins and cometh unto me, and calleth on my name, and obeyeth my voice, and keepeth my commandments, shall see my face and know that I am

2. And that I am the true light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world;

3. And that I am in the Father, and the Father in me, and the Father and I are one-

4. The Father because he gave me of his fulness, and the Son because I was in the world and made flesh my tabernacle, and dwelt among the sons of men.

5. I was in the world and received of my Father, and the works of him were plainly manifest.

6. And John saw and bore record of the fulness of my glory, and the fulness of John's record is hereafter to be revealed.39

7. And he bore record, saying: I saw his glory, that he was in the beginning, before the world was;

8. Therefore, in the beginning the Word was, for he was the Word, even the messenger of salvation-

9. The light and the Redeemer of the world; the Spirit of truth, who came into the world, because the world was made by him, and in him was the life of men and the light of men.

10. The worlds were made by him; men were made by him; all things were made by him, and through him, and of him.

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11. And I, John, bear record that I beheld his glory, as the glory of the Only Begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth, even the Spirit of truth, which came and dwelt in the flesh, and dwelt among us.

12. And I, John, saw that he received not of the fulness at the first, but received grace for grace;

13. And he received not of the fulness at first, but continued from grace to grace, until he received a fulness;

14. And thus he was called the Son of God, because he received not of the fulness at the first.

15. And I, John, bear record, and lo, the heavens were opened, and the Holy Ghost descended upon him in the form of a dove, and sat upon him, and there came a voice out of heaven saying: This is my beloved Son.

16. And I, John, bear record that he received a fulness of the glory of the Father;

17. And he received all power, both in heaven and on earth, and the glory of the Father was with him, for he dwelt in him.

18. And it shall come to pass, that if you are faithful you shall receive the fulness of the record of John.

19. I give unto you these sayings that you may understand and know how to worship, and know what you worship, that you may come unto the Father in my name, and in due time receive of his fulness.

20. For if you keep my commandments you shall receive of his fulness, and be glorified in me as I am in the Father; therefore, I say unto you, you shall receive grace for grace.

21. And now, verily I say unto you, I was in the beginning with the Father, and am the Firstborn;40

22. And all those who are begotten through me are partakers of the glory of the same, and are the church of the Firstborn.

23. Ye were also in the beginning with the Father; that which is Spirit, even the Spirit of truth;

24. And Truth is knowledge of things as they are, and as they were, and as they are to come;

25. And whatsoever is more or less than this is the spirit of that wicked one who was a liar from the beginning.

26. The Spirit of truth is of God. I am the Spirit of truth, and John bore record of me, saying: He received a fulness of truth, yea, even of all truth;

27. And no man receiveth a fulness unless he keepeth his commandments.

28. He that keepeth his commandments receiveth truth and light, until he is glorified in truth and knoweth all things.

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29. Man was also in the beginning with God. Intelligence, or the light of truth, was not created or made, neither indeed can be.

30. All truth is independent in that sphere in which God has placed it, to act for itself, as all intelligence also; otherwise there is no existence.

31. Behold, here is the agency of man, and here is the condemnation of man; because that which was from the beginning is plainly manifest unto them, and they receive not the light.

32. And every man whose spirit receiveth not the light is under condemnation.

33. For man is spirit. The elements are eternal, and spirit and element, inseparably connected, receive a fulness of joy;

34. And when separated, man cannot receive a fulness of joy.

35. The elements are the tabernacle of God; yea, man is the tabernacle of God, even temples; and whatsoever temple is defiled, God shall destroy that temple.

36. The glory of God is intelligence, or, in other words, light and truth.

37. Light and truth forsake that evil one.

38. Every spirit of man was innocent in the beginning; and God having redeemed man from the fall, men became again, in their infant state, innocent before God.

39. And that wicked one cometh and taketh away light and truth, through disobedience, from the children of men, and because of the tradition of their fathers.

40. But I have commanded you to bring up your children in light and truth.

41. But verily I say unto you, my servant Frederick G. Williams, you have continued under this condemnation;

42. You have not taught your children light and truth, according to the commandments; and that wicked one hath power, as yet, over you, and this is the cause of your affliction.

43. And now a commandment I give unto you-if you will be delivered you shall set in order your own house, for there are many things that are not right in your house.

44. Verily, I say unto my servant Sidney Rigdon, that in some things he hath not kept the commandments concerning his children; therefore, first set in order thy house.

45. Verily, I say unto my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., or in other words, I will call you friends, for you are my friends, and ye shall have an inheritance with me-

46. I called you servants for the world's sake, and ye are their servants for my sake-

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47. And now, verily I say unto Joseph Smith, Jun.-You have not kept the commandments, and must needs stand rebuked before the Lord;

48. Your family must needs repent and forsake some things, and give more earnest heed unto your sayings, or be removed out of their place.

49. What I say unto one I say unto all; pray always lest that wicked one have power in you, and remove you out of your place.

50. My servant Newel K. Whitney also, a bishop of my church, hath need to be chastened, and set in order his family, and see that they are more diligent and concerned at home, and pray always, or they shall be removed out of their place.

51. Now, I say unto you, my friends, let my servant Sidney Rigdon go on his journey, 41 and make haste, and also proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the gospel of salvation, as I shall give him utterance; and by your prayer of faith with one consent I will uphold him.

52. And let my servants Joseph Smith, Jun., and Frederick G. Williams make haste also, and it shall be given them even according to the prayer of faith; and inasmuch as you keep my sayings you shall not be confounded in this world, nor in the world to come.

53. And, verily I say unto you, that it is my will that you should hasten to translate my scriptures42, and to obtain a knowledge of history, and of countries, and of kingdoms, of laws of God and man, this for the salvation of Zion. Amen.

The same date43 (May 6th) I received the following:

Revelation.44 [D&C 94] [August 2, 1833]

1. And again, verily I say unto you, my friends, a commandment I give unto you, that ye shall commence a work of laying out and preparing a beginning and foundation of the city of the stake of Zion, here in the land of Kirtland, beginning at my house.

2. And behold, it must be done according to the pattern which I have given unto you.45

3. And let the first lot on the south be consecrated unto me for the building of a house for the presidency, for the work of the presidency, in obtaining revelations; and for the work of the ministry of the presidency, in all things pertaining to the church and kingdom.

4. Verily I say unto you, that it shall be built fifty-five by sixty-five feet in the width thereof and in the length thereof, in the inner court.

5. And there shall be a lower court and a higher court, according to the pattern which shall be given unto you hereafter.

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6. And it shall be dedicated unto the Lord from the foundation thereof, according to the order of the priesthood, according to the pattern which shall be given unto you hereafter.

7. And it shall be wholly dedicated unto the Lord for the work of the presidency.

8. And ye shall not suffer any unclean thing to come in unto it; and my glory shall be there, and my presence shall be there.

9. But if there shall come into it any unclean thing my glory, shall not be there; and my presence shall not come into it.

10. And again, verily I say unto you, the second lot on the south shall be dedicated unto me for the building of a house unto me, for the work of the printing of the translation of my scriptures, and all things whatsoever I shall command you.

11. And it shall be fifty-five by sixty-five feet in the width thereof and the length thereof, in the inner court; and there shall be a lower and a higher court.

12. And this house shall be wholly dedicated unto the Lord from the foundation thereof, for the work of the printing, in all things whatsoever I shall command you, to be holy, undefiled, according to the pattern in all things as it shall be given unto you.

13. And on the third lot shall my servant Hyrum Smith receive his inheritance.

14. And on the first and second lots on the north shall my servants Reynolds Cahoon and Jared Carter receive their inheritances-

15. That they may do the work which I have appointed unto them, to be a committee to build mine houses, according to the commandment, which I, the Lord God, have given unto you.

16. These two houses are not to be built until I give unto you a commandment concerning them.

17. And now I give unto you no more at this time. Amen.

The signs of the times continued to attract the attention of the world. The cholera had broken out at Havana, and it was reported that five hundred were perishing daily, and Oporto, in the province of Entre-Minho-e-Douro, Portugal, was experiencing the same calamity. The influenza was raging at St. Petersburg, Russia; more than one hundred thousand were suffering from its effects, and it was reported to be more violent at Moscow. So dreadful were the effects of the cholera, which spread conster-

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nation among the inhabitants of the earth, that it was reported that the eyes of some of the afflicted burst from their sockets.

A treaty was entered into about this time with several tribes of Indians, some to be located on the east of Winnebago lake, and others to be removed west of the Mississippi. 46

May 25.-My uncle, John Smith47 and family arrived in Kirtland, from Potsdam, New York, my uncle being an Elder in the Church; and his wife and eldest son, George Albert Smith, a lad of fifteen, were members. They were the first of my father's relatives who obeyed the Gospel.48

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Notes Chapter 24

1. The are no Joseph Smith journal entries for this period. Sources employed by the Church historians for this chapter include extracts from the Church newspaper in Independence, Missiouri (ES, May 1833), the KCMB, the 1835 D&C and an unnamed letter from Zion concerning mob activities there. This portion of the ms history is in the hand of Willard Richards.

2. The above on the state of the world is condensed from the Evening and Morning Star for April, 1833. (BHR)

3. The school continued to meet in a 10' x 14' room in the upper story of the Whitney store, while the upper story also served as home for Joseph and Emma Smith. Orson Hyde was the instructor, while Sidney Rigdon occasionally taught English grammar. [RJS, ]

The KCMB has the following entry for March 19, 1833:

Doctor Hurlbut
Joseph Woods
George Gee
Daniel Copely
William Pratt
Isaac H Bishop

Those brethren having come to Kirtland and on the 19th day of March 1833 a conference was called to inquire into their motive in coming to Kirtland &c Broth Joseph wood & William Pratt arose and stated that they came in from their mission for the purpose of selling their private business to prepare the was for them to go forth to proclaim the Gospel- - - - - Next arose Bro Daniel and said he came to know the will of the Lord concerning him George Gee also said he came to know the will of the Lord and to do some business. Broth Hurlbut also said he came to obtain information

Broth Isaac Bishop also arose and said he came for information and desired to know his duty After calling upon the Lord to direct in council it was agreed that Bro Hurlbut and Bro Daniel should journey together to the east & proclaim by the way, and that Bro Wood and Bro Pratt journey togethe to the east after setling their business and Broth. George Gee after finding that he had no special business was sharply reproved and desired not [for] running to Kirtland without paying for his bord [board] and that all who go forth to proclaim use their influence to procure relief to the poor in Kirtland F G Williams CK. PT

The Missouri elders also held a school, referred to as the School of the Elders. Parley Pratt observed: "In the latter part of summer and in the autumn, I devoted almost my entire time in ministering among the churches; holding meetings; visiting the sick; comforting the afflicted, and giving counsel. A school of Elders was also organized, over which I was called to preside. This class, to the number of about sixty, met for instruction once a week. The place of meeting was in the open air, under some tall trees, in a retired place in the wilderness, where we prayed, preached and prophesied, and exercised ourselves in the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Here great blessings were poured out, and many great and marvelous things were manifested and taught. The Lord gave me great wisdom, and enabled me to teach and edify the Elders, and comfort and encourage them in their preparations for the great work which lay before us. I was also much edified and strengthened. To attend this school I had to travel on foot, and sometimes with bare feet at that, about six miles. This I did once a week, besides visiting and preaching in five or six branches a week." [Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt.] D&C 97 acknowledged this school and Pratt's work.

4. Doctor Philastus Hurlbut, b. 1809 in Chittenden County, Vermont. Attended school in Penn Yan, Yates County, New York. United Brethren minister, farmer; Converted to Mormonism in 1833 but after a few months was excommunicated for immorality. Named "Doctor" because of the superstition that the seventh son would possess supernatural medical skill. Employed by a Kirtland, Ohio, anti-Mormon committee to collect information disparaging to Joseph Smith's family and claims, the Book of Mormon and the Church. His findings were published in E. D. Howe's Mormonism Unvailed in 1834. Indicted in 1834 for threatening Joseph Smith's life. Married Maria Woodbury, 1834. After residing in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan, he finally settled in Madison, Sandusky County, Ohio, where he remained until his death. [PWJS, 279.]

5. See notes 25 and 27 of chapter 23 this volume, also notes at Doctrine and Covenants 81 (chapter 18, this volume).

6. See note 5 chapter 22 this volume.

7. The term is a metaphor taken from OT, e.g. Isa. 33:20. The stake is a tent-stake for the tabernacle in the wilderness. See D&C 82:13-14 (this volume, chapter 19).

8. Moses Dailey [Daley?], b. April 16, 1794 at Walkill, New York to John Daley and Amy Mapes. M. Almira Barber January 22, 1819. Eleven children. In Gallatin election fight. Served mission in Michigan. Crossed plains, 1848. Settled at San Bernardino, California. D. December 9, 1865 at Riverside, California. [PJS]

9. Uncle to Newell K. Whitney's wife, Elizabeth Ann Smith. b. 1776, Derby, Connecticut. M. Rachel Webster, 1812. Moved to Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Kirtland, Ohio by 1827. D. 1855 at Kirtland, Ohio.

10. Peter French, m. Sally Rusel, July 15, 1804, Trumbull, Ohio. Early settler in Kirtland, Ohio. The Church purchased several parcels and buildings from the French holdings. See D&C 96.

11. This paragraph is taken from the KCMB. Zebedee Coltrin noted in his journal: "a council of high Priests to investigate the subject of purchasing the brick tavern and farm owned by Pete French." When the assigned brethren returned with their reports to the conference, it was found that "Elijah Smith would sell his farm for four thousand dollars and the Mr. Morley[?] would sell his farm for twenty one hundred dollars, and . . . Peter French would sell his farm for five thousand dollars." With Thayer and Coe appointed as negotiators, Coltrin wrote that "It was agreed to buy [the tavern] and several other farms which made it necessary to call the Elders out of School for the purpose of going again into the world and procuring means for paying for the farms." See chapter 25, this volume, for the partial resolution of this episode. [Zebedee Coltrin Journal, LDS Archives.]

12. D&C 88.

13. Cp. FWR under date. The difficulties in Missouri stemmed in part from the uncontrolled emigration of Saints, particularly without the necessary funds or skills to contribute to the established community. From a growing threat to take over political matters in the region with unwise boasts of the emigrants and a demonstrated difference in dialect, culture and internal cohesion, the "old settlers" in the Independence area were led to fear and discomfort concerning the Saints. [RSR, 222f.]

14. Arnold Mason, b. abt. 1810, Rockingham, VT. Resident of Kirtland area from at least 1829. M. Amanda Eaton, 17 August 1829, Geauga co., Ohio. D. Painesville, Ohio.

15. Official members were elders and high priests.

16. This paragraph is an expansion from ES vol. 1, p. 85.

17. ES, April, 1833. (BHR)

18. Jared Carter had three brothers, John, Gideon and Simeon all of whom were Mormons.

19. This quotes from D&C 84.

20. D&C 72:17.

21. Since the restoration of the high priesthood (June 1831), councils of high priests had evolved to become the governing bodies of the Church. The church government in Zion consisted of seven high priests at this point, while the Kirtland government revolved around the presidency of the high priesthood aided by various ad hoc councils of high priests. This system would become formalized the following year (1834) with the establishment of the stake system: a presidency and high council. The following year, a general council of high priests (the traveling high council- the twelve apostles) would come into being and together with the presidency of the high priesthood (then known as the "first" presidency), would eventually become the general church analogue of the stake system.

22. The historians extracted this letter from the Joseph Smith letterbook where it was recorded by (and also signed by) Frederick G. Williams. There are some minor changes in wording and structure. The principle of revelation commensurate with position was a battle fought many times during Joseph Smith's lifetime. The fact that experienced members like David Whitmer were drawn in by ad hoc "seers" on more than one occasion was a source of consternation to Smith. The Quaker-like thought of many early New York saints became their stumbling block as the church developed its authoritative structure.

23. The identity of this Brother Sherwood is not known. Henry Garlie Sherwood was a well-known church member from 1832. By 1834 Henry Garlie Sherwood was located in Kirtland, Ohio. A Samuel Sherwood lived in Independence and may have been a Mormon, though he apparently turned against the religion by mid 1833. [The Journals of William E. McLellin, 117-8.]

23a. See note 11 for the reason that the school terminated that season.

24. See notes at D&C 78. Joseph was particularly anxious that New York (and other) creditors not know financial details of the church, and persons connected to its financial proceedings. He feared that the information might lead to law suits or other court action should they default, or that premature action could be taken if notes were sold and called in by persons unfavorable to Mormonism. He was all too familiar with the trouble that the name "Mormon" could inspire for both himself and the cause.

25. Here follows the revelations on page 333. (BHR)

26. In the printing history of LDS scriptures, JST NT and the Book of Mormon have never been printed together exclusively.

27. The problem of executing the revelations on consecration was a real one and working out the relationship with the "law of the land" took time and experience. Members deeded their possessions to the church and then Partridge would deed back a stewardship with "conditional" deed, revocable if the member withdrew or was removed from membership. This was not in accord with state law and Partridge was eventually forced to give a non-revocable deed. Cp. letters to Zion in chapter 26 of this volume of the history; also see notes in that chapter. [See, Lyndon W. Cook, Joseph Smith and the Law of Consecration, (Provo, Utah: Grandin, 1985).]

28. Lands set aside by legislative edict to fund education by their sale.

29. This letter was extracted from the Joseph Smith letterbook (written by F. G. Williams). The postscript also contains the follow-on sentence, "tell Sister Chloe [?] that her Mother is well and living with bro Reynolds Cahoon and is now at my home".

30. This paragraph corresponds with Newell Knight's account:

An immense mob collected together expressing a determination to drive us from our homes for they would not allow the "Mormons" to live in their midst.

On hearing this news, a number of the brethren met together and prayed to God to overrule the wicked designs of the mob meeting, that they might not have power to agree upon their plans, or to execute their wicked threats. They broke up in a regular row, and for time all was well. As might be expected, this caused considerable uneasiness among us, and it required great wisdom and care on our part to keep the Saints quiet, and to keep them at their labors.

In the meantime the Lord had given a commandment to Zion to build a temple to His holy name. [Autobiography, excerpted from Classic Experiences and Adventures, (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1969).]

31. Albert Brown, b. 1807, Windsor, CT. Ordained elder 26 Mar 1836. m. 1839, moved to Nauvoo, Ill. High priest, endowed Nauvoo, Dec. 1845. Went west to Utah, resided Iowa for several years in interim. D. 1901 Salt Lake City, Utah.

32. Vienna Jaques. b. Born 10 June 1787 in Beverly, Essex County, Massachusetts. Daughter of Henry and Lucinda Jaques (Father born in France). Baptized near Boston before July 1832. Came to Kirtland before 30 April 1833. Directed to consecrate property to Church and receive inheritance in Zion 8 March 1833. Moved to Missouri in company with William Hobart 1833. Married to Daniel Shearer (1840?). No known children. Sealed to Joseph Smith, 28 Mar 1858. Received Patriarchal Blessing from William Smith in Nauvoo 25 July 1845. Received endowment 22 January 1846 in Nauvoo Temple. D. at Salt Lake City, Utah, 7 February 1884. [RJS]

33. See p. 329. (BHR)

34. See their circular letter in the following chapter.

35. Micah Baldwin Welton, b. 13 August 1794 in Watertown, Litchfield County, Connecticut. Son of Eliakim Welton and Loly Barnes. Residing in Portage County by 1831. Married Wealthy Upson. Later married Keziah. Known children: Sarah Elizabeth and Rachel. Baptized 23 June 1831 at Northampton, Ohio. Ordained priest by Oliver Cowdery 25 October 1831 at Orange, Ohio. Ordained elder 17 November 1831 by Reynolds Cahoon. Appointed to preach gospel with Eden Smith 25 January 1832. Residing in Clay County, Missouri, 1836. After Mormon expulsion from Missouri, located in Pike County, Illinois, 1839. Ordained seventy on or before 6 May 1839 at Quincy, Illinois. Member of Third Quorum of Seventy in Nauvoo. Appointed to preach in Kentucky April 1844. Received endowment in Nauvoo Temple 29 January 1846. [RJS]

35a. Probably Milo Hays. Excommunicated for violation of word of wisdom and covenant breaking June 6, 1835 at New Portage, Ohio.

36. The above paragraphs on conference and council proceedings were extracted from the KCMB.

37. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. xciii. (BHR)

38. This revelation was first published in the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants. The internal context of the revelation marks it as being related to the translation of the NT. The NT translation effort had ceased February 2, 1833, however. See note below.

The earliest ms of the revelation is undated but is found in the Newel K. Whitney collection (Brigham Young University Library). It may be the original. Another ms, found in the KRB in the hand of Orson Hyde, contains the date May 6, 1833. The Hyde ms was written prior to August 18, 1834. No textual variations of significance are found among extant copies of the revelation. [Woodford]

39. The John mentioned here has been identified as John the Baptist by some (see for example John Taylor in his book Mediation and Atonement), John the Apostle by others (see for example the headnote of D&C 93 in some editions prior to 1981). The text seems to contain evidence for either interpretation.

40. These verses now interpreted as an obvious reference to the preexistence of the human mind or spirit were clearly puzzling to early readers. As late as 1842 followers may have interpreted these passages as allegory (for example, Parley P. Pratt, Millennial Star, May 1842). See also, RSR, 207-210.

41. Rigdon was to do missionary work in the local area to combat negative publicity, as were Joseph and Frederick G. Williams. Following the completion of the OT translation (following note) Rigdon and Williams would take a missionary preaching tour to "relax!"

42. The NT translation was finished Feb. 2, the OT was finished July 2, 1833. Some further editing was done on the mss after this. [FWR, 25 October 1831; also see chapter 10 this volume, note 5; also note 11, chapter 23.]

43. Richards assigns this revelation the date May 6, 1833. In fact, it seems to be the second half (the opening words "and again" suggest this) of a revelation given August 2, 1833 (see KRB, 64; also RJS, 196; Woodford argues for the May date). The first half of the August 2 revelation is currently published as D&C 97. Why the revelation was split in the 1835 D&C is not known. Richards probably took his dating from a somewhat cryptic notation in the 1835 D&C. An August 6 letter [Joseph Smith Collection, LDS Archives] to the leaders in Zion containing D&C 94, 97 suggests the August 2 date:

Beloved Breatheren

Having received br Oliver's letter of July 9th as well as one from the breatheren composing the school in Zion according to your request we enquired of the Lord and send this letter the communication which we received from the Lord concerning the school in Zion. It was obtained August 2nd and reads thus [here follows the text of D&C 97 and then 94]. You will see by these revelations that we have to print the new translation of here at Kirtland for which we will prepare as soon as possible here follows another revelation received to day

Kirtland August 6th 1833

[Here follows the text of D&C 98.]

Having here given you two revelations we accompany them with the following explanations 1) the revelation respecting the two houses to be built in Kirtland in addition to the one we are now building one for the presidency and the other for the printing is also bending [binding] on you that is you at Zion have to build three two houses as well as the one of which we have sent the pattern and mentioned in the first revelation above written you are also in addition to this one to build two others one for the presidency and one for the printing they will therefore be longer than the ones we are to build in Kirtland 2) you are to print an Edition of the schriptures there at the same time we do here so that two additions will be struck at the same time the one here and the other there, the two last mentioned houses are to be built as soon after the other as means can be obtained so to do

The pattern of the last mentioned houses is yet to be given see revelation 1 above Aron Lyons and Leonard Rich wishes you to forward the rest of their paper to Kirtland as they are going to move here immediately both at present of ________

Sidney Rigdon F. G. Williams Joseph Smith Jr.

44. Doctrine and Covenants, sec. xciv. (BHR)

45. This revelation dates after D&C 95 which concerns the Kirtland temple (specifically, the temple was considered to be the house of the school of the prophets per D&C 88). On June 3, 1833, a conference of high priests decided that the specific dimensions were needed. According to D&C 95:14, a specific pattern would be given to Smith, Rigdon and Williams. Evidently this must have happened prior to Aug. 2. See notes at D&C 95.

46. The above items of plagues and removal of Indians are from the Evening and Morning Star for May 1833. (BHR) [Richards had inserted this citation in the text. Roberts removed it to a footnote.]

47. John Smith, b. July 16, 1781 in Hillsborough, New Hampshire. Brother of Joseph Smith, Sr. with whom he served two missions. M. Clarissa Lyman 1815. Baptized by Joseph Smith, Jr. January 9, 1832. Served as high councilor in Kirtland and Nauvoo and presided over several church units in Missouri, Iowa and Illinois. Member of anointed quorum, Nauvoo. With first pioneers to Utah. Ordained presiding patriarch 1849. D. May 23, 1854. [PJS]

48. For an account of their conversion to the Gospel see p. 285. (BHR) [The Church historians frequently inserted data into the ms history from or about the future apostolic leaders after Joseph Smith. This note appears as note A in ms history addenda.]